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Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts. Critique or enhance their discussion of I.Q. and multiple intelligences testing by providing example(s) to make your point. Please respond to at least two of your classmates. Be sure to respond to any queries or comments posted by your instructor.


How do these two different tests measure intelligence? 

The IQ test was about what knowledge you have, and you needed to apply it by reading the questions and answering them correctly.  It was set up like a traditional test that you would take in school.  The multiple intelligence one was accentuating what your strengths are and what you need to work on.  It also gives you the option to learn how to use your other intelligences that were not in your top three.   

Which test do you think was more reflective of your intellectual ability? Why? 

The IQ test was a better reflective way of telling where I am at intellectually.  It gave me a number that I go right and a percentage of where I was versus other people.  My IQ was 134 which is considered High Average to Gifted.   

But when looking at the book, it states that a successful intelligence requires “analytical abilities, creative abilities and practical abilities” (Chapter 3.1).  In terms of this, I would say that the assessment to find the strengths would be a better reflective of my intellectual ability.  It gives what you are good at and how to strengthen your other abilities.  I was good at language, social and musical.   

How do you feel about the practice of I.Q. testing? 

I was honestly stressing the whole time that I was taking it.  It was timed and I kept thinking “I hope I get a good number”.  It made me second guess myself, I was not confident that I would do so well.   

In reviewing your results, what did you learn about I.Q. testing? 

I read that I could be a college professor or a medical doctor.  I could also consider being a lawyer, engineer or computer programmer.    

How does your experience connect with the information from the text on I.Q.? 

My goal graduating from high school was to be a paralegal and then become a lawyer.  I’ve still contemplated doing that, but I love children and education so much that I’m not sure if I’d ever switch my career choice.   

Could I.Q. testing be used as a valid tool in the teaching-learning process? Why or why not? 

They could be used as guide as to where the child is as a range.  But it cannot be used as a valid tool.  You need more specifics of where the student is lacking.  There need to be more specific results so that when you do your parent-teacher conferences, you can give the parents tools to help in guiding them to help them practice on their weaknesses.  It also doesn’t touch on all the abilities of a child that can be seen on other assessment tools that are geared towards children.   

Why are I.Q. tests problematic? Consider diverse student populations. 

They are problematic because first are all populations going to have access to them online.  Not every child is able to be online like certain communities are.  Then I would be worried if a student takes the IQ test and doesn’t get a good result, what would that do to their self-esteem.  Children need that support to show them what they did wrong and how they can fix it.   It also doesn't allow for students with other abilities that they are strong in to shine.  It only had math and English questions on it.  


How do these two different tests measure intelligence?

The IQ test measures knowledge that has been taught to you or that you have learned through the years. It does not have a line of questioning that does not involve rational thinking. Most of it involves math and language such as vocabulary.It does not ask questions about art, music, history, or anything like that. If you were never book smart in school as far as math and language arts, you will not get a good score on this test. It is also timed which makes a lot of people nervous.

The Intelligence test asked questions about what is most like you, or least like you. It asked you about your interests. It had questions about art, music, math, reading, sports, and friendships. I feel like this measures personality more than intelligence. Intelligence can be interpreted in different ways. I have heard of people being a musical prodigy, but couldn't read or write. This test measures intelligence according to what your likes and dislikes are, and gives you feedback according to your responses.

Which test do you think was more reflective of your intellectual ability? Why?

I scored a 118-123 in my IQ test. It said I was above average or superior. I really don't think it was accurate. I was never top of my class. My grades were always average. I paid attention in school, but I wasn't a wiz kid by any means. The questions asked on the test were basic middle school math. There was no Algebra, Geometry, or Trigonometry questions, or I would have been in the lowest percentile they had. My strengths have alway been in Language Arts. Reading, writing, poetry, and vocabulary.

The intelligence test I scored a 4.29 in Social, 4.14 in Language, 3.86 in Nature, 3.71 in Self, 3.14 in Musical, 2.57 in Body Movement, 2.14 in Spatial, and a 1.57 in Logic/Math. This is a lot more accurate to me. It shows what I am good at or interested in, and explains what each of the results means in terms of your intelligence. The only downfall to this test is you are choosing your own answers there are no right or wrong answers. So, if you wanted to, you could fool the test by answering dishonestly

How do you feel about the practice of I.Q. testing?

I really do not have an opinion on IQ testing if the questions are relevant for the age group. You could not give a six or seven year old the test I just took and expect to get accurate results. I feel as though if you gave the test and results to someone that was very sensitive and was not a good test taker, it could discourage them if they got a low score. Not everyone will excel at Math and English, but they are fundamentals in learning that need to be learned. So, do I think IQ tests should be given to school age kids? Sure, if they are age appropriate, and the child is made to understand the results are not a factor into how smart they are, but what they have learned so far.

The intelligence test is a good test to see what interests your student. What they feel they are good at, and what subjects matter to them and they enjoy. It would be a fun test to see how all the students in the class scored. Then, put them in groups with people who scored differently than them to see what kid of group discussions occur.

In reviewing your results, what did you learn about I.Q. testing?

I learned IQ testing can be a useful tool to use as a teaching tool. It can be interesting to see where your students stand as far as IQ and Intelligence testing. I also learned these tests are also affected by interests and prior experience in the classroom or hobbies.

How does your experience connect with the information from the text on I.Q.?

The text gives various ways that testing can be administered. It also shows the variables involved when taking the test.When taking variables into consideration, such as if the child might be sick, or something is going o at home, they are over whelmed or anxious. These could all have adverse effect during the testing.

Could I.Q. testing be used as a valid tool in the teaching-learning process? Why or why not?

As I said earlier in this post, I think it would be a great tool to use in a group setting. You could sit like minded students together and see if they get along . You can see what kind of ideas they come up with for projects or assignments. You could also split the classroom up into groups that have different scores in different categories and see how they communicate and work together during group assignments. I think this would work well in a classroom setting or virtual. I also would like to see if student stronger in any particular intelligence were more likely to take a leadership role than the others.

Why are I.Q. tests problematic? Consider diverse student populations.

I think IQ test become problematic when culture, race, gender, socioeconomic status, and physical location come into question. I think if these questions were asked prior to the exam, and the results were measured according to others in their specific group. It would put certain groups of classes on their own. Which in doing so, would not be fair. Or, put student in different school systems for that matter. Would schools that had students with higher IQ's get more funding? If a child scores above average they might want to move them out of a school they are comfortable in, to a school where the kids are not like them. It may make them feel inadequate. I volunteered for a private school as a volleyball coach for many years, and I saw the kids who came in on scholarships because of high test scores. They were bullied and teased. They could have been just as successful at the school they were comfortable at with a more challenging curriculum. However, they were being moved across 3 cities to feel less like themselves, by kids who were privileged and had more advantages than them.

Guided Response: Respond to at least one classmate that has been assigned a different position from you and offer a rebuttal. Be sure to provide evidence from the literature to support your opposition. Also, respond to your original post and provide your own opinion of inclusion based on the evidence from the research and the responses of your classmates. Did your thinking change after reading your classmates’ viewpoints? Share your concerns about working with students with special needs in the regular classroom. Be sure to respond to any queries or comments posted by your instructor. 


1. What is inclusion and how does the legislative mandate of IDEIA (Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, formerly known as IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) support its efforts.

Inclusion is a simple way is defined as "including everyone." The idea behind IDEIA is for educators to use more a homeschool approach in the classroom where there is an individualized learning plan specifically for each student. All remain in the classroom together but the teacher formulates a lesson and allows each student to draw from it with instruct guidance starting from their own level and understanding.

1. Based on your research, provide at least three reasons for your position that is supported by the texts. You also want to provide solid examples to support each reason.

· Homeschool type of setting where all learning styles are embraced- "The regular class is not looked at as how it is,
but how it "can be"

· Involving everyone by make lesson individualized"regular class, the regular class gets ready for the child."

· Diversity in welcome,"he fundamental principle of inclusive education is the valuing of diversity within the human community."

What is inclusion? (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm


Inclusion fought for a long time, is a way of including everyone no matter where their intelligence lays. It is a way of including everyone by providing a sense of belonging to everyone regardless of differences (Kids Together, n.d.). The IDEIA supports this idea by allowing students by law to attend school and receive a free education regardless of a child’s intelligence. The improvements to this movement as aloud funding to schools so that districts may implement the needed tools to help educate those in need.

           There are many reasons that inclusion should take place in every learning environment especially regarding children. First, every child deserves the chance to learn, grow, and develop no matter what their state of mind is. Second, we as a society need to break the cycle of labeling those who are not up to certain standards. Lastly, education does not have to be done separately from others. By abiding by inclusion, each student receives a sense of belonging, gains higher expectations, and raises their self-esteem (Thompkins, 1995).


Kids Together, Inc. (n.d.). What is inclusion? (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm (Links to an external site.)

Thompkins, R. & Deloney, P. (1995). Inclusion: The pros and cons (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). Issues..about Change, 4(3). Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues43.html

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings. Support your initial and subsequent posts by citing at least two scholarly and peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text. The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types.


Determine and discuss both historical and contemporary problems contributing to the homeless single-mother populations

           The homeless population of single parents is one of the most vulnerable homeless groups. Fifteen percent of the homeless population are unmarried single mothers. Eighty-five percent are fleeing domestic violence. If not enough stress to function as both parents, adding the homeless factor to an already difficult life circumstance can make or break the single-parent family and influence future poverty.

           Throughout history, women have been stigmatized as fragile and weak. In the Colonial Period, women and children were tough enough to endure indentured servitude with their children beside them laboring. Both were not privy to an education. During this period compensation consisted of cents on the dollar for long workdays, or food, if fortunate. Today, these same single mothers must labor alone unless their child is 16 years old or older due to labor laws. Add to these variables that a historical gender inequality gap remains which worsens when age and race come into the equation.

It is estimated that more than half of single mothers have not completed high school or a GED. In the absence of a degree and a high school diploma, 75 percent of single parents work in low-wage jobs. The median income for this vulnerable group is figured to be about $24,000 annually. Many single mothers have little to no work experience because of their lack of education and inability to afford daycare.

In addition to the low income, a single parent must afford the high cost of daycare. If daycare is an added expense, the cost ranges from $10 – 13,000.00, leaving less than half of their income before taxes and health insurance, if available to afford rent, utilities, and food (Martin, 2018).

In turning to the system for help, these single mothers are expected to suffice from even less income allotted by the TANF, SNAP, and Medicaid programs. In cooperation with the transition from ADFC to TANF, women must enter a Work Force program that returns her and her children to the same disparity. Often, women choose to return to their abusers as they see no other way to survive. As poverty, disparity, and instability increase, so do the variables of deviant behaviors and lack of education within their children.

Cyclic Poverty – a potential risk of homeless single-mother families

Forty-two percent of homeless children transfer schools if in attendance due to being homeless. The emotional instability and behavioral defiance the children endure due to domestic violence and poverty lead to worse emotional and psychological states, escalating behaviors, poor performance and grades, suspensions and expulsion, and eventually dropping out (NAEH, 2020). Childhood homelessness is one of many potential neglect and abuse indicators, especially when the mother returns to a dysfunctional home, domestic violence, and addiction, which further contribute to the cycle of abuse and poverty – thus comes intergenerational poverty and the cycle of abuse dynamics. Since the cyclic behaviors are learned, it is essential to advocate for awareness in educating and counseling the families. Furthermore, sustainable life is proven through education when supplied a support network and tools are appropriate and adequate for an education to occur.

Human Services effectiveness for single-mother families

           Creating a plan of action and follow-through while case management is in place is crucial. An effective plan to gain job skills and obtain a higher education beginning at a high school diploma or GED is the first step to higher wages to afford the living cost. Although the TANF program stipulates this initially, there is little follow-through. Families need ample time to get sufficient educational resources and skillsets to promote self-sufficiency. Research has shown that when poverty meets desperation, criminal behaviors become relevant and increase as a measure to suffice.

The Second Chance Education Program

The Nebraska Correctional Center for Women here in York, Nebraska, coordinates with York College to enter women inmates into the Second Chance Program. A cohort of twelve model inmates is enrolled in core courses to achieve an Associate’s degree over three years. The program's stipulations include employment as an inmate to contribute to the cost incurred ($50.00 per course) and exemplify ideal conduct while incarcerated. A GED or high school diploma is required, which is not told as covered, which may be a limitation to this program (York College, 2018). However, the history of behavior and motivation to break their life cycles demonstrated through their conduct and achievements promotes the ability to transition well into society and reunify with their children. In interviews with the cohort, many inmates expressed the desire to continue their higher education. With this desire comes an ability to better support their children and set an example that aids in eradicating intergenerational poverty among single-mother homes.

           Granted the latter example within my community is more extreme, it is common for single mothers, especially black single mothers to fall in the cracks of a broken system. Available resources need to be implemented when high-risks are observed instead of a last means.


Martin, M. E. (2018). Introduction to human services: Through the eyes of practice settings (4th ed.). Pearson.

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2020, January). Children and Families. https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/who-experiences-homelessness/children-and-families/ (Links to an external site.)

York College. (2018). Second Chance Education Program. https://www.york.edu/secondchance.html


Homelessness in the United States

Homelessness has continued to arise in the United States. After reading chapter 8 and adding to chapter 9 we can see that mental illness and homelessness not only are a problem in the united states but individuals with mental illness tend to be a high risk of homelessness. According to Martin (2018) homelessness is a very complex social problem, often encompassing issues related to physical and mental health, domestic violence, child welfare, and chronic financial insecurity. The United States economic crisis has deeply affected the lives of millions of American. This has resulted in pay reductions, bob layoffs, bankruptcies, and sky rocking foreclosures, which have plunged many families and individuals into ever economic hardship, particularly those living in low-income communities (Martin, 2015). According to National Coalition for the Homeless, (2009) serious mental illness disrupt people’s ability to carry out essential aspects of daily life, such as self-care and household management. In addition to individuals with mental illness single parent families are among another group that struggle with the lack of stable housing.

Determine and discuss the circumstances, both historical and contemporary, that have contributed to the problem of Homeless Veterans

The rate of homelessness began to increase between 1970 and 1980 due to a decrease in affordable housing and an increase in poverty (Martin, 2018, p. 207).  According to Martin, (2018) the 2007 recession has exacerbated this trend of financial vulnerability, as indicated by about two-thirds of cities in the United States reporting increase in requests for food and emergency shelters in 2014. Today the definition of homelessness is an issue, but the problem of homelessness is still an issue today. Advocates for the homeless still complain that the federal definition of homelessness is too marrow because point-in-time counts still only include sheltered and unsheltered persons (Martin, 2018, p. 208). In addition, impacts service provision eligibility and funding, since the federal government significantly underestimates the homeless population (Martin, 2018, p. 208).  According to martin (2018) the largest portion of homeless population consist of homeless individuals primary middle age men who are often of color and are sometimes veterans-living alone in shelters or on the streets. Veterans who struggle with homelessness have suffered from Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or substance use related to experience in the military.

Risk for Homeless Veterans

According to martin (2018) many homeless veterans suffer from PTSD after having served in the military during wartime, as well as have physical disabilities, such as traumatic brain injury. Some risk factors include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance use, anxiety, and risk of suicide are among risk factors of homelessness. One of the main issues is that there remains a substantial unmet need for veteran mental health care as nearly half of veterans fail to receive services even after being diagnosed with a behavioral health condition (Edward et. al., (2020). According to Taft et. al., (2005) veterans are fifty percent more likely to become homeless than other Americans due to poverty, lack of support, network. Veterans are about 1.5 million at risk of homelessness.

Explain how a human services professional can most effectively tend to the needs of your chosen population

Human services professionals can be vital in aiding veterans who struggle with homelessness. Human service professionals can provide case management services to link veterans with housing resources as the one listed below. Human services professional can provide encouragement and support to veterans. According to Martin (2018) human services professional can help with basic needs such as providing food, shelter and good health care, while using a strengths-based approach to build a positive alliance as a basis for intervention. It’s our role to help the community have a better understand as individuals who struggle with lack of stable housing can be stereotyped, as professionals we can develop outreach programs and other services designed to overcome these negative perception (Martin, 2018).

Identify and provide at least one current societal or governmental initiative that has been implemented nationally or in your area to help your chosen population.

There are many agencies that offer services for the homeless and those experiencing housing insecurity (Martin, 2018). According to Martin (2018) agencies that provide direct services to homeless population are likely the recipient of grants provided in response to the McKinney Vento Act. Some programs include Shelter Plus Care Program, the supportive housing program, and the section 8 HEATH act grants consolidated into a single program called the Emergency Solution Grants program (Martin, 2018, p. 219). In addition, there are several other programs such as rapid rehousing, permanent housing program, housing projects, section 8 housing, traditional housing program, including emergency shelters, and domestic violence shelters (Martin, 2018, p. 219-220).


Edwards, E. R., Barnes, S., Govindarajulu, U., Geraci, J., & Tsai, J. (2020). Mental health and substance use patterns associated with lifetime suicide attempt, incarceration, and homelessness: A latent class analysis of a nationally representative sample of US veterans. Psychological Services. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1037/ser0000488

MARTIN, E. (2015). AFFORDABLE HOUSING, HOMELESSNESS, AND MENTAL HEALTH: WHAT HEATH CARE POLICY NEEDS TO ADDRESS. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 38(1), 67-89. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/stable/24459676

Martin, M. E. (2018). Introduction to human services: Through the eyes of practice settings (4th ed.). Pearson.

National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009). Mental illness and homelessness (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/Mental_Illness.pdf

Taft, C. T., Pless, A. P., Stalans, L. J., Koenen, K. C., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2005). Risk Factors for Partner Violence among a National Sample of Combat Veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(1), 151–159.

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings. Support your initial and subsequent posts by citing at least two scholarly and peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text. The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types.


Summarize the mental illness into a paragraph.

        The mental illness I will be discussing is, obsessive compulsive disorder. It is usually known or presented as, OCD. When an individual has OCD, it can be hard to control or stop them, especially when it is a part of their daily routines. This can be linked to the mental illness of anxiety disorders. Ultimately, having OCD means the person suffering from the disorder does things over and over again, either daily, every hour, etc. At times, it can be hard for them to understand or see what they are doing as a problem since they are used to doing it. For instance, reoccurring thoughts, and behaviors are how we live our lives, among other things, but a person with OCD continues to go off of these instances.

Research the possible causes of the illness, who is at risk, the symptoms, and some of the available treatments and therapies. Explain to the class in two to three paragraphs.

      Obsessive compulsive disorder is a mental illness, and the causes of the illness are unknown. “Factors such as genetics, brain biology and chemistry, and your environment may play a role” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d.). Anyone can be at risk of having obsessive compulsive disorder. Since it is unknown of the causes of the illness it can hard to determine when an individual will get it, if they get it at all.

       As it pertains to obsessive compulsive disorder, there are few symptoms. Some symptoms are, fear of being contaminated by touching objects others have touched, doubts that you’ve locked the door or turned off the stove, intense stress when objects aren’t orderly or facing a certain way, images of driving your car into a crowd of people, thoughts about shouting obscenities or acting inappropriately in public, unpleasant sexual images, and avoidance of situations that can trigger obsessions, such as shaking hands (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).

       There is no way to prevent obsessive compulsive disorder. There are certain treatments and therapies available though. When there are signs, the individual should receive help and see a physician. If it goes untreated it will continue to get worse and disrupt the ways they continue to live their lives. Two of the main treatments are medicines, such as antidepressants, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

Continue to teach the class by training them how they could each, as human services professionals, work with an individual diagnosed with this mental illness as part of a broader treatment plan.

As human services professionals, working with an individual with obsessive compulsive disorder can be a bit tricky, especially if they are not able to admit their OCD is consuming them and their life. One of the therapies, CBT, can help with helping the individual overcome some of their anxieties. “One specific type of CBT that can treat OCD is called Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP). EX/RP involves gradually exposing you to your fears or obsessions. You learn healthy ways to deal with the anxiety they cause” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d.). It is not a one-time fix so there needs to be patience and understanding when dealing with someone diagnosed with OCD.


Mayo Clinic (n.d.). Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20354432 (Links to an external site.)

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Mental disorders. MedlinePlus. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/mentaldisorders.html



Mental Illness & Mental Disorders [WLO: 2] [CLOs: 2, 4]

Mental illness can be describe as an illness that can affect your moods, behavior and your feelings day to day. U.S. National Library of Medicine (n.d) describes, “Mental disorders (or mental illnesses) are conditions that affect your thinking, feeling, mood, and behavior” (MedlinePlus). There are many disorders that we see every day, sometimes in people with know. Common illnesses are depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and even disorders that can affect ones eating. These mental disorders can make daily life challenging if not under control. Some of these disorders must be controlled by medications however, many people can be helped by counseling or therapy. Some common disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression can have an underlined past trauma that has caused the illness. Some illnesses can more severe and require a caregiver because the symptoms cannot be controlled such as schizophrenia, autism or dementia. Martin (2018) wrote, "Severe mental illness leaves many incapable of providing for their basic needs," (Ch. 8). Many of these people can be found on the streets as there are homeless.

Post-traumatic stress disorder has been known for those that have served the military and witness many violent and bloody scenes of the war. However, today, PTSD has been diagnosed to many people who have gone through a stressful ordeal. It has been described as a disorder in individuals who may have suffered life threatening trauma such as combat, a natural disaster (Links to an external site.), a car accident, or sexual assault (Links to an external site.) or less threatening like the death of a loved one (U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d.). While this disorder can be found in older adults, there are children who can suffer from PTSD. Martin (2018) wrote, “" When individuals experience a significant trauma, their brains react accordingly, going into a “survival mode,” which often doesn’t go away when their lives return to normal" (Ch. 8). Many times the person lives as though they are still in danger (Martin, 2018). The symptoms may be different in different people.

Individuals that suffer from PTSD may go through anxiety, angry and difficulty concentrating. Many times they experience flashbacks, nightmares and difficulty sleeping. These challenges often leaves them in a depression where life is difficult. As Human Service professionals, talking through the past traumas can assist individuals in dealing with the actually event that caused them stress. Martin (2018) wrote, "When individuals experience a significant trauma, their brains react accordingly, going into a “survival mode,” which often doesn’t go away when their lives return to normal" (Ch. 8). An effective human services professional will be able to recognize the different coping styles and how the individual or family handles the crisis (Martin, 2018). From my personal experience, the depression or moods get better however, it never seems to go away. As professionals, we should continue with a plan to ensure that the client is getting all that is needed out of therapy.


Martin, M. E. (2018). Introduction to human services: Through the eyes of practice settings (4th ed.). Pearson.

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Mental disorders (Links to an external site.). MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/mentaldisorders.html