​Sexual Harassment Assignment

​Sexual Harassment Assignment




Read the following articles and write 2 pages reflection.

1.Why do you believe that sexual harassment occurs?

2.Do you believe that sexual harassment occurs more in our industry that in others? Why?

3.As a manager how would/can you prevent sexual harassment from occurring?

4.What would/should you do if you overhear a co-worker talking about another employee in sexually?

5.Summarize the current event(s) related to Harvey Weinstein and the multiple famous chef’s currently accused of sexual misconduct

Le Cirque Sued by Former Employees for Sexual Harassment

To Hostess, a Dream Restaurant Was a Nightmare

Report: Sexual harassment rampant in the restaurant industry

Sexual Harassment Lawsuit Statistics

The Results of a 1976 Survey of Women About Sexual Harassment At Work Remain Virtually Unchanged In 2017

Please follow MLA Format which is in the attachment.

Verbal Behavior Discussion

Verbal Behavior Discussion




In this unit, we focus on the varying complexity of ethical dilemmas, as well as the seven-step model for analyzing these situations. Consider one of the following scenarios described by a professional, and describe how you would respond using the seven-step model. (Please put in the subject line which scenario you are discussing.)

Scenario 1:

The Medicaid waiver agency where I am providing behavioral services, billed for behavioral services that were not provided to the client. I am sorry to say this was probably not just an error because this is not the first time the agency has done this. My ethical conflict is that the agency did provide another service the family desperately needed, so the family has not reported the agency. The family did not want to lose the best personal care attendant they have ever had. Does this balance out? The family and child really did need this personal care attendant. Can I get in trouble for not reporting this? And, I don’t even know to whom or how I would report this (Bailey & Burch, 2016, pp. 344–345).

Scenario 2:

In our district, there is a BCBA who charges the school district and other agencies a lot of money for providing services to children with autism—and I mean a lot of money. He tells people who are more than just a BCBA that he is one of the very few behavior analysts in the country nationally certified as a “Behavior Analyst for Verbal Behavior.” What should I do about this? I am not inclined to approach him and would rather deal with someone else (Bailey & Burch, 2016, p. 341).

Scenario 3:

Where I live, many BCBAs working in the area of autism promote interventions that are ineffective or not based on research. Examples are casein-free diet, essential fatty acids, facilitated communication, auditory integration training, sensory integration therapy, secretin, megavitamins A, B6, and C, and chelation therapy. These BCBAs say, “I just don’t want to argue with the parents; they want to try these things and are willing to pay for both them and behavioral services. As long as it is not hurting anything and my programs are working, I don’t see this as an ethical issue” (Bailey & Burch, 2016, p. 345).


Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2016). Ethics for behavior analysts (3rd ed.). Routledge.

250 words

CB assignments

CB assignments




Please complete all assignments

Part 1 250-350 words

Discuss different types of models for managed care. Address the following:

  • Discuss at least 1 reason why the managed care delivery model was created.
  • Describe at least 2 different types of managed care, including their differences.
  • Identify at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of the managed care model.

Part 2 250-350 words

How healthcare services are provided is constantly changing. While historically, emergency departments (ED) was physically located within the hospital building, the standalone Emergency Department also referred to as the Free Standing Emergency Department (FSED) has become a new model for delivery of emergency services within communities. Consider yourself in the role of a consultant to a healthcare organization, financial manager, or ED administrative director. You have been asked to provide the CEO and leadership with pros and cons of establishing a Free Standing Emergency Department. You are aware of the news stories about these types of facilities, and you will want to review The Washington Post article at this link as you prepare your review.

Include in your discussion:

  • Differences between off campus emergency departments (OCEDs) and independent free standing emergency centers (IFECs). What would be the advantage to the healthcare organization of an OCED?
  • How would services provided be reimbursed either by private insurance or Medicare/Medicaid?
  • What are the advantages or disadvantages to the community of an FSED? Would members of the community favor an OCED or an IFEC?
  • Why are most of the FSEDs located in Texas, Colorado and Ohio?
  • Based on your research and the news stories about FSEDs, what would you recommend to the CEO and Board of Directors?

NOTE: Use at least two scholarly references and cite using APA format.

Part 3 250-350 words

Physicians and other providers of clinical care play a key role in delivery of healthcare. With the various models of reimbursement and goals of cost containment, the role of the physician in managing patient care has changed.

  • Describe two reimbursement models and the role of the physician in each model.
  • How do government and private insurers influence how physicians practice today?
  • Why is accurate and complete documentation in the electronic health record important to reimbursement and quality of care?
  • What other members of the healthcare team who do not provide direct care to patients contribute to cost containment and delivery of healthcare services

Part 4 250-350 words

  • Identify one challenge you see in the U.S. health care system today. What healthcare organizations/departments are impacted?
  • Identify one government agency and its role in meeting the challenge?
  • Considering your career goals in the healthcare industry, how would your role as a member of the healthcare team and your team be involved in meeting the challenge?
  • What did you learn in this course that was most surprising or unexpected from when you started the course?

Fishing Boat Questions

Fishing Boat Questions




A U.S. fishing boat manufacturer is known throughout the United States for its innovative approach to product design, lean manufacturing, and responsive customer service since its start three years ago. The mission statement of the company is “We will provide the most innovative customer-driven design and growth in the industry.” The founders’ ideals for the company are described in the vision statement: “We will be the most sustainable company in the industry.” The company’s ethical statement that guides all conduct and decision-making is “We will make decisions that are sustainable for customers and the environment.”

The company’s founders have created an organizational culture of innovation. They have provided incentives for employees’ creative ideas and created testing laboratories where customers use the products and provide design feedback. The founders have also invited innovators in other industries, such as gaming and information technology, to improve on the designs. The founders have cultivated a company culture in which employees and founders are considered equal partners. The company structure is decentralized, and all employees can access the founders at any time for collaboration, shared decision-making, or relationship building. All company decisions are evaluated by all employees to ensure that everyone is committed to the decisions.

The company has identified an emerging global market opportunity in India for its products. Successful sales in India could represent a critical moment for the company if the company establishes strategic partnerships that will increase the likelihood of product success. The founders hope to capture profits and market share and expand into other parts of Asia within the first year of selling products in India.

Research indicates market potential for the company’s sales in India because of the importance of the fishing industry in the country. Fishing and aquaculture are primary industries in the coastal regions of India. Economic zones have been established to support the over 14 million people who are an important part of the fishing industry. This industry makes up 1% of the nation’s gross domestic product and 7% of global fish exports (Hanko Hackberry Group, n.d.).

The company’s goal of the market expansion into India is to be the first foldable fishing boat manufacturer reaching the country. An origami-inspired foldable fishing boat is the company’s most popular product. This boat comes designed as a plastic carrying case that unfolds into the water like an origami paper boat. This boat is suitable for uses in calm water, and the boat can be recycled. The product retails for U.S.$200.

Traditional fishers use nonmechanized boats, which would be ideal for the foldable boat’s entry into the market. Laws and regulations surrounding the use of nonmechanized boats favor importing foldable boats, which would be easy for fishers to carry from home to the water. The business climate in India is open to new partnerships to improve the fishing experience for those who preserve the natural ecosystem with nonmotorized boats. The National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) promotes the use of natural fishing equipment to reduce disruption to the fishing ecosystem in India (National Fisheries Development Board, n.d.).

The U.S. boat manufacturer’s founders met with the NFDB to request an endorsement for their foldable boats because of the product’s sustainable design and net-zero environmental impact. The founders discovered that the NFDB would only endorse the boat if it was made of plastics used in India, in order to reduce the waste products in the nation’s landfills.

This endeavor would require the U.S. company to make a significant investment in India. The company would need to purchase or build a manufacturing facility, or it would need to contract with a facility owner to secure a manufacturing location. It would need to employ Indian workers. Lastly, the company would have to manufacture a new foldable boat made from used plastics in India with an environmentally friendly waterproof coating.

The new foldable boat could be designed in several ways, and the company would need to test a series of paper products and waterproof coatings to determine which would be suitable for fishers in India. The fishers range in age from 13 to 70, so the design would need to be comfortable and portable enough for all fishers in this target group.

The company decides to hire Indian fishers to help design the product to reach this market. These fishers will provide qualitative, open-ended conversations and data that will be valuable in communicating the product’s features and benefits to other fishers. The product will be tested by a variety of fishers that represent different sectors of the fishing industry, different regions, and different cultural segments. Testing will provide generalizable, qualitative data about the product use and effectiveness.


A. Discuss aspects of the company from the provided scenario by doing the following:

1. Describe in detail how each of the following aspects from the scenario affect the company’s decision-making process:

  • company culture
  • organizational structure
  • strategic direction, including mission and vision statements

2. Describe in detail how the company’s culture could affect the market entry strategy.

3. Discuss in detail whether the organizational structure is an advantage or disadvantage to the company and explain why.

B. Discuss the company’s product from the provided scenario by doing the following:

1. Describe specific characteristics of the emerging market that affect the company’s product.

2. Discuss in detail how either a new product or an improvement to the company’s existing product would meet the market characteristics identified in part B1.

a. Include details of each of the steps the company would take in the design thinking process for the new or improved product from part B2.

b. Choose three of the following aspects from the scenario, and provide a detailed discussion of their effect on the design thinking process for the new or improved product from part B2:

  • company culture
  • emerging market culture
  • company ethics
  • emerging market ethics
  • organizational structure
  • global legal systems

3. Discuss in detail how the company’s ethical statement from the scenario influences the market entry strategy.

C. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

Marketing Plan Financial Goals and Competitive Rivalry Essay

Marketing Plan Financial Goals and Competitive Rivalry Essay


Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan Marketing Plan Template A. Meanings, Purposes, and Audiences • [Figure A-1] A marketing plan is a road map for the marketing activities of an organization for a specified future period of time, such as one year or five years. • A business plan is a road map for the entire organization for a specified future period of time, such as one year or five years. • There is no generic structure for a marketing or business plan. • The specific format for a marketing plan depends on: a. The target audience and purpose. • • Internal audience. – Consists of board of directors, senior management, and other employees. – Seeks to point the direction for future marketing activities. – Is sent to all individuals in the organization who must implement or who will be affected by the plan. External audience. – Consists of friends, banks, venture capitalists, crowdfunding sources, and other potential investors. – Constitutes the principal sources for raising capital. – Is an important sales document. – Contains elements such as the strategic plan/focus, organizational structure, and biographies of key personnel that rarely appear in an plan for an internal audience. – Has financial information that: * Is far more detailed because the plan is used to raise capital. * Tells prospective investors how they will get their money back, earning a profit on their investment. b. The kind and complexity of the organization. • • A small, local business: – Will have a relatively simple plan that… – Is directed at prospective customers in its local target market. A large, hierarchical company in a tiered marketing plan. AppA-1 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan – Will have various levels of detail… – Such as the entire organization, the strategic business unit, or the product/product line. c. The industry. Small and large organizations: • Analyze their competitors in the industry within which they compete. • Have geographic scopes that are different. • Have different complexities with respect to their offerings. • Have different time periods covered by their plans. – One year for small businesses. – Five years for large organizations due to their product development cycles. d. The difference between marketing and business plans. • A business plan contains details on the R&D, operations, or manufacturing activities of the organization. • For a manufacturing business, the marketing plan is probably 60 or 70 percent of the entire business plan. • For a small business, the marketing and business plans are identical. B. The Most-Asked Questions by Outside Audiences • An external audience, particularly prospective lenders and investors, is probably the toughest audience to satisfy. The most-asked questions from an external audience are: a. Is the business plan or marketing plan valid? b. Is there something unique or distinctive about the product or service that separates it from substitutes and competitors? c. Is there a clear market for the product or service? d. Are the financial projections realistic and healthy? e. Are the key management and technical personnel capable, and do they have a track record in the industry within which they must compete? f. Does the plan clearly describe how those providing capital will get their money back and make a profit? • Make a positive impression in the first five minutes or the plan will be rejected! AppA-2 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan C. Writing and Style Suggestions • There are no magic one-size-fits-all guidelines for writing successful marketing and business plans. • Still, the following writing and style guidelines generally apply: a. Use a direct, professional writing style. • Use appropriate business terms, not jargon. • Use active voice with present and future tenses: – “I will write an effective marketing plan” versus… – “An effective marketing plan will be written by me.” b. Be positive and specific to convey potential success. • Avoid superlatives (terrific). • Specifics are better than glittering generalities. c. Use numbers for impact. • Where possible, justify projections with… • Reasonable quantitative assumptions. d. Use bullet points for succinctness and emphasis. They enable key points to be highlighted effectively. e. Use A-level and B-level headings. • Helps readers to make easy transitions from: – One section to another. – One topic to another. • Forces the writer to organize the plan more carefully based on the sequence and level of topics covered in the plan. • The size of headings should give a professional look to the report and not overwhelm the reader. • A heading should be spaced closer to the text that follows (and that it describes) than the preceding section to avoid confusion for the reader. • Use liberally: One every 200 to 300 words. f. Use visuals where appropriate. • Photos, illustrations, graphs, and charts enable massive amounts of information to be presented succinctly. • Photos or sample ads can illustrate key points effectively, even if they are not in color. AppA-3 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • A brief caption on photos and sample ads ties them to the text and highlights their reason for being. • A graph shows more clearly the effect of a trend (such as sales growth) than data presented in a table would do. • Sometimes short tables are woven into the text rather than given a figure number and a title. g. Shoot for a plan 15 to 35 pages in length. • Excludes financial projections and appendices. • An uncomplicated small business may require only 15 pages. • A high-technology start-up may require more than 35 pages. h. Use care in layout, design, and presentation. • Laser printers give a more professional look than ink-jet printers do. • Use 11- or 12-point type (you are now reading 10.5-point type) in the text. • Use a serif type (with “feet,” like that you are reading now) in the text because it is easier to read. • Use sans serif (without “feet”) in graphs and charts like Figure A-1. • Use a bound report with a nice cover and a clear title page adds professionalism. • Use a bound report with a nice cover and a clear title page adds professionalism. • When creating a list: • • – Use parallel construction to improve read ability. – In this case, a series of infinitives starting with “To….” To improve readability: – Each numbered section usually starts on a new page. – This is not done in this plan to save space. Each long table, graph, or photo is given a figure number and title. – It appears as soon as possible after the first reference in the text, accommodating necessary page breaks. – This avoids breaking long tables in the middle. – Short tables or graphs: * Are often inserted in the text without figure numbers because… * They don’t cause serious problems with page breaks. AppA-4 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan – • Effective tables seek to summarize a large amount of information in a short amount of space. • Most readers find that indented paragraphs in marketing plans and long reports are easier to follow. • An “introductory overview” sentence tells the reader the topics covered in the section. – While this sentence may be omitted in short memos or plans… – It helps readers see where the text is leading. These guidelines are used, where possible, in the sample marketing plan that follows. SAMPLE FIVE-YEAR MARKETING PLAN FOR PARADISE KITCHENS, INC. To help interpret the marketing plan for Paradise Kitchens, Inc., that follows, we will describe the company and suggest some guidelines in interpreting the plan. A. Background of Paradise Kitchens, Inc. • Co-founders Leah and Randall Peters have more than 40 years of food industry experience. • Paradise Kitchens produces and markets a new line of high-quality frozen chili products. B. Interpreting the Marketing Plan • The Paradise Kitchens marketing plan: a. Is based on an actual plan. b. Is directed at an external audience. c. Has some details and dates have been altered to: • • Protect proprietary information about the company… • But the basic logic of the plan has been kept. Writing an effective marketing plan: a. Is hard but also… b. Is challenging and satisfying work. AppA-5 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • Dozens of the authors’ students have used effective marketing plans they wrote for class in their interviewing portfolio to: a. Show prospective employers what they could do. b. Help them get their first job. C. Five-Year Marketing Plan for Paradise Kitchens, Inc. Table of Contents The Table of Contents provides quick access to the topics in the plan, usually organized by section and subsection headings. 1. Executive Summary • Many experts see the Executive Summary as the single most important element in the plan. • The two-page Executive Summary “sells” the plan to readers through its clarity and brevity. • For space reasons, the Executive Summary is not shown in Appendix A. • The Building Your Marketing Plan exercise at the end of Chapter 2 asks the reader to write an Executive Summary for the Paradise Kitchens plan. 2. Company Description The Company Description highlights the recent history and recent successes of the organization. • Paradise Kitchens was: a. Started by co-founders Randall F. Peters and Leah E. Peters to develop and market Howlin’ Coyote® Chili. b. A unique line of single serve and microwavable Southwestern/Mexican style frozen chili products. c. First introduced into the Minneapolis-St. Paul market and expanded to Denver two years later and Phoenix two years after that. • To the Company’s knowledge, Howlin’ Coyote: a. Was the only premium-quality, authentic Southwestern/Mexican style, frozen chili sold in U.S. grocery stores. AppA-6 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan b. Gained fast, widespread acceptance in its targeted markets due to its high quality. c. Same-store sales doubled in the last year for which data are available. d. The Company believes the Howlin’ Coyote brand can be extended to other categories of Southwestern/Mexican food products, such as tacos, enchiladas, and burritos. • Paradise Kitchens believes its high-quality, high-price strategy has proven successful. • This marketing plan outlines how the Company will extend its geographic coverage from 3 markets to 20 markets by the year 2022. 3. Strategic Focus and Plan • The Strategic Focus and Plan sets the strategic direction for the entire organization, a direction with which proposed actions of the marketing plan must be consistent. • This section is not included in all marketing plans. See Chapter 2. • Three key aspects of the company’s corporate strategy are: a. Mission/Vision. • The qualitative Mission statement focuses the activities of Paradise Kitchens for the stakeholder groups to be served. See Chapter 2. • Paradise Kitchens intends to market Howlin’ Coyote Chili: – As the highest-quality line of single serve and microwaveable Southwestern/Mexican-style frozen chili products. – At premium prices that satisfy consumers in this fast-growing food segment… – While providing challenging career opportunities for employees and above-average returns to stockholders. b. Goals. • The Goals section sets both the nonfinancial and financial targets—where possible in quantitative terms—against which the company’s performance will be measured. See Chapter 2. • There are two types of goals in a plan: – Nonfinancial goals. AppA-7 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan 1. To retain its present image as the highest-quality line of Southwestern/Mexican products in the food categories in which it competes. 2. To enter 17 new metropolitan markets. 3. To achieve national distribution in two convenience store or supermarket chains by 2018 and five by 2019. 4. To add a new product line every third year. 5. To be among the top five chili lines—regardless of packaging (frozen or canned)—in one-third of the metro markets in which it competes by 2019 and two-thirds by 2021. – Financial goals. 1. To obtain a real (inflation-adjusted) growth in earnings per share of 8 percent per year over time. 2. To obtain a return on equity of at least 20 percent. 3. To have a public stock offering by the year 2019. c. Core Competency and Sustainable Advantage. • • Core Competencies. – Provide distinctive, high-quality chilies and related products using Southwestern/Mexican recipes that appeal to and excite contemporary tastes for these products. – Deliver these products to the customer’s table using effective manufacturing and distribution systems that maintain the Company’s quality standards. Sustainable Advantage. – Will work closely with key suppliers and distributors to… – Build the relationships and alliances necessary to satisfy the high taste standards of our customers. 4. Situation Analysis • A Situation Analysis is a snapshot to answer the question, “Where are we now?” See Chapter 2. • A situation analysis of Paradise Kitchens starts with a snapshot of the current environment in which the firm finds itself in. AppA-8 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • Porter’s Five Forces analysis Conduct a Porter’s Five Forces analysis. This will help define profitability potential and help with some SWOT aspects (refer to the Porter’s Five Forces documents). a. Threat of new entrants b. Threat of substitutes c. Bargaining power of customers d. Bargaining power of suppliers e. Competitive rivalry • The SWOT analysis: a. Identifies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to provide a solid foundation, which… b. Is the springboard to identify subsequent actions in the marketing plan. • SWOT Analysis for Paradise Kitchens a. Strengths. • An experienced management team and board of directors. • Unique, high-quality, high-price products. • Distribution in three markets with excellent consumer acceptance. • • • • Good workforce, though small, little turnover. Excellent growth in slaes revenues. Sole supplier ensures high quality. Continuing efforts to ensure quality in delivered products. b. Weaknesses. • Small size can restrict options. • Many lower-quality, lower-priced competitors. • No national awareness or distribution; restricted shelf space in the freezer section. • • Big gap if key employees leave. Limited resources may restrict growth opportunities when compared to giant competitors. Lack economics of scale of huge competitors. Lack of canning and microwavable food processing expertise. • • AppA-9 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan c. Opportunities. • Upscale market, likely to be stable; Southwestern Mexican food category is fast-growing segment due to growth in Hispanic-American population and desire for spicier foods. • Distinctive name and packaging in its markets. • Technical breakthroughs enable smaller food producers to achieve many economies available to large competitors. • • Consumer income is high; convenience important to U.S. households. High U.S. Food & Drug Administration standards eliminate fly-by-night competitors. d. Threats. • Premium price may limit access to mass markets; consumers value a strong brand name. • Not patentable; competitors can attempt to duplicate product; others better able to pay slotting fees. Competitors have gained economics in canning and microwavable food processing. More households “eating out” and bringing prepared take-out into home. Mergers among large competitors being approved by government. • • • • Industry Analysis: Trends in Frozen and Mexican Foods a. The Industry Analysis section provides the backdrop for the subsequent, more detailed analysis of competition, the company, and the company’s customers. b. Without an in-depth understanding of the industry, the remaining analysis may be misdirected. See Chapter 2. c. Frozen Foods. • Consumers are flocking to the frozen food section of grocery retailers. The reasons: – Hectic lifestyles demanding increased convenience. – An abundance of new, tastier, and nutritious products. • Total sales of frozen food in supermarkets, drugstores, and mass merchandisers reached $32.8 billion in 2017, the latest year for which data are available. • Prepared frozen meals: – Defined as meals or entrees that are frozen and require minimal preparation… AppA-10 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan – Accounted for 39 percent of the total frozen food market. • Sales of Mexican entrees now exceed $600 million. • Heavy consumers of frozen meals: – Are those who eat five or more meals every two weeks. – Tend to be kids, teens, and adults 35 to 44 years old. d. Mexican Foods. • Mexican foods such as burritos, enchiladas, and tacos are used in twothirds of American households. • These trends reflect a generally more favorable attitude on the part of all Americans toward spicy foods that include red chili peppers. • The Hispanic population is growing in the United States. • Hispanics have: • • – A population over 57 million. – Almost $1.4 trillion in purchasing power. – Which partly explains the increasing demand for Mexican food. In 2020, Hispanic purchasing power is projected to be over $1.7 trillion. Competitor Analysis: The Chili Market a. The Competitor Analysis section demonstrates that the company has a realistic understanding of its major chili competitors and their marketing strategies. b. A realistic assessment gives confidence that subsequent marketing actions in the plan rest on a solid foundation. See Chapters 2, 3, 8, and 9. c. The chili market represents over $500 million in annual sales. d. On average, consumers buy five to six servings annually. e. The market is divided into two segments: • • Canned chili (75 percent): – Is sold by Hormel, Dennison, Campbell’s, and others. – Is now sold chili in a glass jar by Bush, a major marketer of beans. Dry chili (25 percent): – Is sold by Lowry’s, Stagg, etc. – Requires consumers to add their own meat, beans, and tomatoes, taking more preparation time. AppA-11 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan f. Canned chili does not taste very good according to a study. • Company Analysis a. The Company Analysis provides details of the company’s strengths and marketing strategies that… b. Will enable it to achieve the mission and goals identified earlier. See Chapters 2 and 8. c. The co-founders of Paradise Kitchens, Inc, have 44 years of experience between them in the food-processing business. d. Both have played key roles in the management of the Pillsbury Company. e. They are being advised by a highly seasoned group of business professionals, who have extensive new-product development experience. f. The Company now uses a single outside producer with which it works closely to maintain the consistently high quality required in its products. g. The greater volume has increased production efficiencies, resulting in a steady decrease in the cost of goods sold. • Customer Analysis a. Satisfying customers and providing genuine value to them is why organizations exist in a market economy. See Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. b. This section describes: • The characteristics of customers expected to buy Howlin’ Coyote products. • The health and nutrition concerns of Americans today. c. Customer Characteristics. • Demographically, chili products in general are purchased by consumers representing a broad range of socioeconomic backgrounds. • These consumers represent 50 percent of canned and dry mix chili users. • Howlin’ Coyote chili is purchased chiefly by consumers: – Who have achieved higher levels of education. – Whose income is $50,000 and higher. – Whose households have one to three people in them. – Whose households have both spouses working. AppA-12 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • While women are a majority of the buyers, single men represent a significant segment. • Howlin’ Coyote’s customers: – Tend to be those most pressed for time. – Are skewed toward the higher end of the income range because of the premium pricing it charges. – Range in age from 25 to 54 years old. – Often live in the western U.S. where spicy foods are eaten more. d. Health and Nutrition Concerns. • • • Food issue coverage by U.S. media is often erratic and occasionally alarmist. – Americans are concerned about their diets. – The major news organizations cover studies that vary widely in terms of their credibility. * Studies on the healthfulness of Mexican food have received prominent play in print and broadcast reports. * The high caloric levels of much Mexican and Southwestern-style food have been widely reported and often exaggerated. Some Mexican frozen-food competitors: – Such as Don Miguel, Mission Foods, Ruiz Foods, and José Olé… – Offered more “carb-friendly” and “fat-friendly” products in response to this concern. Howlin’ Coyote: – Is not stressing these qualities in its promotions. – Is stressing taste, convenience, and flexibility in the space and time available for promotions. 5. Market-Product Focus This section describes Paradise Kitchens’ Howlin’ Coyote: • Five-year marketing and product objectives. • Target markets, points of difference, and positioning of its line of chilies. • Marketing and Product Objectives a. The chances of success for a new product significantly increase if: AppA-13 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • Objectives are set for the product itself. • Target market segments are identified for it. b. Diversification analysis helps identify the market segments to target. c. The objectives also serve as the planned targets against which marketing actions are measured in program implementation and evaluation. d. See Chapters 2, 9, and 10. e. Howlin’ Coyote’s marketing intent: • Is to take full advantage of its brand potential while… • Building a base from which other revenue sources can be mined… • Both in and out of the retail grocery business. e. These markets and products are detailed in four areas below: • • Current markets. – Will be grown by expanding brand and flavor distribution at the retail level. – Will grow same-store sales by: – • Increasing consumer awareness and repeat purchases, thereby… * Leading to the more efficient broker/warehouse distribution channel. New markets. – • * By the end of Year 5, the chili, salsa, burrito, and enchilada business will. * Be expanded to a total of 20 metropolitan areas. * Represent 53 percent of the 38 major U.S. metropolitan markets. This will represent 70 percent of U.S. food store sales. Food service. – Will include chili products and smothering sauces. – Sales are expected to reach: * $693,000 by the end of Year 3. * $1.5 million by the end of Year 5. New products. – Howlin’ Coyote’s brand presence: * Will be expanded at the retail level through … * The addition of new products in the frozen-foods section. AppA-14 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • – This expansion will be accomplished through new-product concept screening in Year 1 to identify new potential products. – These products will be brought to market in Years 2 and 3. Target Markets a. This section identifies the specific niches or target markets toward which the company’s products are directed. b. When appropriate and when space permits, this section often includes a market-product grid. See Chapter 9. c. The primary target market for Howlin’ Coyote products is households: • With one to three people. • Where often both adults work. • With individual income typically above $50,000 per year. d. These households contain more experienced, adventurous consumers of Southwestern/Mexican food and want premium quality products. • Points of Difference a. An organization cannot grow by offering only “me-too products.” b. The greatest single factor in a new product’s failure is the lack of significant “points of difference” that set it apart from competitors’ substitutes. c. This section makes these points of difference explicit. See Chapter 10. d. The “points of difference”— characteristics that make Howlin’ Coyote chilies unique relative to competitors—fall into three important areas: • • • Unique taste and convenience. – No known competitor offers a high-quality, “authentic” frozen chili in a range of flavors. – No existing chili has the same combination of quick preparation and home-style taste that Howlin’ Coyote does. Taste trends. – The American palate is increasingly intrigued by hot spices. – In response to this trend, Howlin’ Coyote brands offer more “kick” than most other prepared chilies. Premium packaging. AppA-15 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • – Howlin’ Coyote’s packaging graphics convey the unique, high-quality product contained inside and… – The product’s nontraditional positioning. Positioning a. A positioning strategy helps communicate the unique points of difference of a company’s products to prospective customers in a simple, clear way. b. This section describes this positioning. See Chapter 9. c. In the past, chili products have been either convenient or tasty, but not both. d. Howlin’ Coyote pairs these two desirable characteristics to… • Obtain a positioning in consumers’ minds as very high-quality “authentic Southwestern/Mexican tasting” chilies that… • Can be prepared easily and quickly. 6. Marketing Program • Everything that has gone before in the marketing plan sets the stage for the marketing mix actions—the four Ps—covered in the marketing program. See Chapters 10 through 21. • The four marketing mix elements of the Howlin’ Coyote chili marketing program are detailed below. • Product Strategy a. This section describes in detail three key elements of the company’s product strategy: • The product line. • Its quality and how this is achieved. • Its “cutting edge” packaging. • See Chapters 10 and 11. b. After first summarizing the product line, the approach to product quality and packaging is covered. c. Product Line. Howlin’ Coyote chili: • Retails for $3.99 for an 11-ounce serving. • Is available in five flavors: AppA-16 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan – Green Chile Chili. – Chicken Chunk Chili. – Red Chile Chili. – Mean Bean Chili. – Beef and Black Bean Chili. d. Unique Product Quality. • The flavoring systems of the Howlin’ Coyote chilies are proprietary. • The products’ tastiness is due to extra care lavished upon the ingredients during production. • The ingredients used are of unusually high quality. • To preserve cell structure and moistness, meats are… – Low-fat cuts. – Fresh. – Not frozen. • Chilies are fire-roasted for fresher taste. • Tomatoes and vegetables are of select quality. • No preservatives or artificial flavors are used. e. Packaging. Howlin’ Coyote: • • Bucks conventional wisdom in its packaging. • Avoids placing predictable photographs of the product on its containers. • Shows a Southwestern motif that communicates the product’s out-of-theordinary positioning. Price Strategy a. This section makes the company’s price point very clear, along with its price position relative to potential substitutes: b. When appropriate and when space permits, this section might contain a breakeven analysis. c. See Chapters 13 and 14. d. Howlin’ Coyote Chili’s price: • Is $3.99 for an 11-ounce package. • Is priced comparably to the other frozen offerings but… • Is priced higher than the canned and dried chili varieties. e. Howlin’ Coyote Chili’s price is justified because of: • The significant taste advantages it has over canned chilies. AppA-17 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • • The convenience advantages over dried chilies. Promotion Strategy a. Three key promotional activities are emphasized: • • • In-store demonstrations. – Enable consumers to try Howlin’ Coyote products and discover their unique qualities. – Will be conducted regularly in all markets to increase awareness and trial purchases. Recipes. – Are offered to consumers to stimulate use. – Are given at all in-store demonstrations. – Are on the back of packages. – Are sent through a mail-in recipe book offer. – Are in coupons sent by direct-mail. – Are printed on freestanding inserts in newspapers. Cents-off coupons. Are distributed in four ways to generate trial and repeat-purchase of Howlin’ Coyote products: – – In Sunday newspaper inserts. These inserts: * Are widely read. * Help generate awareness. In-pack coupons. To encourage repeat purchases by new buyers: * Will contain coupons for $1 off two more packages of the chili. * Will be included for the first three months the product is shipped to a new market. – Direct-mail chili coupons. Those households that fit the Howlin’ Coyote demographics described previously will be mailed coupons. – In-store demonstrations. Coupons will be passed out at in-store demonstrations to give an additional incentive to purchase. b. For space reasons, the company’s online strategies are not shown in the plan. c. See Chapters 17, 18, and 19. AppA-18 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan • Place (Distribution)Strategy a. Described in this section are: • The present method of distribution. • The new method of distribution to be used when the increased sales volume makes it feasible. • See Chapters 15 and 16. b. Howlin’ Coyote is distributed in its present markets through a food distributor. • The distributor: – Buys the product. – Warehouses the product. – Resells and delivers the product to grocery retailers on a store-by-store basis. c. As sales grow, we will shift to a more efficient system using a broker who sells the products to retail chains and grocery wholesalers. 7. Financial Data and Projections • All the marketing mix decisions covered in the marketing program have both revenue and expense effects. • These are summarized in this section of the marketing plan. • [Figure 2] The marketing plan provides past sales revenues for along with fiveyear financial projections. • Past Sales Revenues a. Historically, Howlin’ Coyote has had a steady increase in sales revenues since its introduction in 2009. b. In 2013, sales jumped spectacularly, due largely to new promotion strategies. c. Sales have continued to rise, but at a less dramatic rate. • Five-Year Projections a. The Five-Year Projections section starts with the judgment forecast of cases sold and the resulting net sales. b. Gross profit and then operating profit—critical for the company’s survival— are projected. AppA-19 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan c. An actual plan often contains many pages of computer-generated spreadsheet projections, usually shown in an appendix to the plan. d. Five-year financial projections for Paradise Kitchens appear in the table below Figure 2. e. These projections reflect the continuing growth in the number of cases sold (with eight packages of Howlin’ Coyote chili per case). f. Because the plan: • Proposes to enter 17 new metropolitan markets in the coming five years (for a total of 20), it… • Is not possible to simply extrapolate the trend in Figure 2. g. Instead, management’s judgment must be used. h. Methods of making sales forecasts—including the “lost horse” technique used here—are discussed in Chapter 8. 8. Organization • [Figure 3] The organization chart and staffing plan for Paradise Kitchens appears here. • It reflects the barebones organizational structure of successful small businesses. • Often a more elaborate marketing plan will show the new positions expected to be added as the firm grows. • Paradise Kitchens: a. Operates with full-time employees in only essential positions. b. Augments its full-time staff with key advisors, consultants, and subcontractors. c. Will add people with special expertise to the staff as the firm grows. 9. Implementation Plan • The Implementation Plan shows how the company will turn its plan into results. • Charts are often used to set deadlines and assign responsibilities for the many tactical marketing decisions needed to enter a new market. • [Figure 4] Introducing Howlin’ Coyote chilies to 17 new metropolitan markets: AppA-20 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan a. Is a complex task. b. Requires that creative promotional activities gain consumer awareness and initial trial. • Paradise Kitchens: a. Will be in 20 metropolitan markets by 2022, including the three existing ones. b. Is in 53 percent of the top 38 U.S. metropolitan markets. • The anticipated rollout schedule to enter these metropolitan markets appears in Figure 4. • The diverse regional tastes in chili: a. Will be monitored carefully to… b. Assess whether minor modifications may be required in the chili recipes. • As the rollout to new metropolitan areas continues, Paradise Kitchens… a. Will assess manufacturing and distribution trade-offs to… b. Determine whether to start new production with selected high-quality regional contract packers. 10. Evaluation Plan • The essence of evaluation is: a. Comparing actual sales with the targeted values set in the plan. b. Taking appropriate actions. • Note that the section: a. briefly describes a contingency plan for alternative actions… b. Depending on how successful the entry into a new market turns out to be. • Monthly sales targets in cases have been set for Howlin’ Coyote chili for each metropolitan area. • Actual case sales will be compared with these targets and tactical marketing programs modified to reflect the unique sets of factors in each metropolitan area. AppA-21 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix A – Building an Effective Marketing Plan Appendix A. Biographical Sketches of Key Personnel Appendix B. Detailed Financial Projections • Various appendices may appear at the end of the plan, depending on the plan’s purpose and audience. • For example, résumés of key personnel or detailed financial spreadsheets often appear in appendices. • For space reasons these are not shown here. AppA-22 Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Marketing Plan for: (XXXXXXXXX) (Team member names) (Course number and semester) Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary 2. Company Description 3. Strategic Focus and Plan a. Mission/Vision b. Goals – Nonfinancial goals. – Financial goals. 4. Situation Analysis • Porter’s Five Forces analysis a. Threat of new entrants b. Threat of substitutes c. Bargaining power of customers d. Bargaining power of suppliers e. Competitive rivalry • The SWOT analysis: a. Strengths b. Weaknesses. c. Opportunities. d. Threats. • Industry Analysis • Competitor Analysis • Company Analysis • Customer Analysis 5. Market-Product Focus • Marketing and Product Objectives • Target Markets • Points of Difference • Positioning 6. Marketing Program • Product Strategy • Price Strategy • Promotion Strategy • Place (Distribution) Strategy 7. Financial Data and Projections • Past Sales Revenues • Five-Year Projections 8. Organization 9. Implementation Plan 10. Evaluation Plan Appendix A. Biographical Sketches of Key Personnel Appendix B. Detailed Financial Projections References
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SWOT and Palladium Shortage Case Essay

SWOT and Palladium Shortage Case Essay




Q1. In about 100 – 200 words, write an essay analyzing the below case study using the SWOT framework.

You are required to define each key concept (SWOT) and identify at least 2strengths, 2 weaknesses, 2 opportunities, and 2 threats. Then to write an analytical essay for the case study.(5 points)

Gap, the Californian-based fashion chain which started as a single shop in 1969, is by all accounts a retail phenomenon. Trading under the three labels Gap, Old Navy and Banana Republic, its worldwide estate extends to 3,157 stores. With 130 stores, Britain is its largest international market, well ahead of Japan, Canada and France. About 153,000 people work for the company worldwide.

But after a long decline, the future of the American fashion chain is in doubt as its founders consider a sale or a break-up of the retail empire. The company has been suffering falling sales ever since 2004. Gap has admitted a ‘disappointing customer response’ to its products over the last few years. Its shares are less than half the level of their peak in 2000. Such results contrast sharply with the growing popularity and success of lower-priced high street fashion chains with which it is unable to compete.

Some people suggest that Gap started to lose its sharp sense of customers’ tastes especially when long-serving chief executive Mickey Drexler left in 2002. He was replaced by a former Disney’s theme parks, Paul Pressler whose background is in marketing rather than fashion. Retail analyst David Stoddard argues that ‘if you look at {Gap’s} advertising and marketing, the strong message you get is that it doesn’t know what it is or who we are’

In its aggressive bid to restore credibility and a once – greatly-coveted market share, Gap in the US is now focusing on its traditional strengths- jeans, T-shirts, hooded sweatshirts and khakis-to win back customers. It is also improving the quality of its fabrics. Gap which once was at the center of sweat labor claims is now greatly admired for its supply-chain management. It is also part of the charitable Red initiative with 50 percent of profits on certain items going to organizations fighting Aids in Africa. But this may be too little, too late.






Q2Read the extract and apply the problem-solution pattern of analysis to it. (5 points)

Electronics Industry Warns of Palladium Shortage

Warning was given yesterday of a severe shortage of palladium, a metal essential for some components of portable electronic equipment such as mobile telephones and laptop computers, as well as for catalytic converters that remove pollutants from car exhausts.

“Palladium use continues to grow very strongly but production lags behind. Soon after 2000 we could be in a very difficult situation unless industrial users take attention now,’ said Mike Steel, research director at Johnson Matthey, the world’s biggest platinum and palladium marketing group. He said consumers had been relying on Russia’s palladium stocks to fill a substantial gap between demand and supply.JM believes these stocks will run out soon after the end of the century.

Mr. Steel said there had been a preview of potential trouble earlier this year when Russia, which exports 70 per cent of the world’s palladium, stopped exporting the metal for six months. This helped to drive the price to its highest level for eighteen years… Although it has fallen back since Russian Exports restarted, the price remains roughly double its level at this time last year.

  • What is the starting situation?
  • What is the problem?
  • What is the underlying cause of the problem?
  • What solution has been proposed?
  • How successful is the solution?

IT Strategic Plan Case Study

IT Strategic Plan Case Study




GG Freightways (GGFRT) IT Strategic Plan, Part 1

Before you begin this assignment, be sure you have read the “GG Freightways Case Study” and all the course content from Weeks 1 and 2.

Purpose of this Assignment

This assignment gives you the opportunity to apply the course concepts to begin development of an Information Technology Strategic Plan (ITSP) to support the strategic direction of GG Freightways (GGFRT). This assignment specifically addresses the following course outcomes to enable you to:

  • identify, define, and explain the concepts of information technology governance and management

IT Strategic Plan for GG Freightways

Lance, the new CIO at GGFRT, has asked you to write an IT Strategic Plan that she can use to guide the direction for her organization. The ITSP will be developed in two parts. This assignment covers Part 1; Part 2 will be covered in the next class assignment. Together, they will form an ITSP that has been tailored to the course material covered in this class. You may work for an organization that has an ITSP, and it would be a good idea for you to look at it, but it will likely be structured a little differently from this one. Each organization develops an ITSP that will work for them.


You will develop Part 1 of the ITSP for GG Freightways (GGFRT), using the outline below. Each of the topics to be included in your outline is covered in the course content readings assigned thus far. In addition to the course materials, at least two external resources (resource other than those provided in the class) must be used. Two or more cited references will earn top credit. Use a separate References page to list just the references you have cited.Remember to use the APA formatting rules and correctly cite and reference your sources with APA format. Use the Grading Rubric to be sure you have covered everything.

Please use this outline to build your IT Strategic Plan. Use the numbering and headings shown below.

Part One

  • Business Statement – Summarize in one paragraph, in your own words, the business of GGFRT. Include the location of the company/terminals, fleet information/details, and current/future financial climate/goals (with cost savings). Refer to Case Study.
  • Business Strategic Objectives – In the Case Study, the management team has identified three (3) new strategic objectives. Using the following table (copy/paste it into your assignment), List/number the three (3) objectives, then, in your own wordsadd a brief explanation to each one. Next add a new strategic objective of your own – one that you consider important to the current and future health of GGFRT’s business. In the explanation, it should be a statement of how the management team would improve the business of GGFRT. It can be one of the three federal/state regulations that the company wants to remain in compliance with, or a new one that you choose. Write a brief introductory paragraph prior to the table. The paragraph must come first before your table, to explain what the table is providing.
  • IT Vision and IT Mission Statements – Write two short paragraphs with separate IT vision and IT mission statements for the Information Technology Department at GGFRT. Label one “IT Mission Statement:” and one “IT Vision Statement:”. The format should be:
    • IT Mission Statement: (explanation)
    • IT Vision Statement: (explanation)
  • Governance – Using the course content materials and the case study, describe, following the format below for each section, how the IT governance process should work for GGFRT. Lance wants to engage the other senior leaders, so include:
  • Inventory of Current IT Systems – Using the information in the Case Study, you will use the table provided to describe the current systems in use (not the systems being planned or in process of being completed) and the IT resources allocated to their support. Copy and complete the table below, creating additional rows as needed to cover all current systems at GGFRT (if needed), then write a brief introductory paragraph prior to the table. The paragraph must come first before your table, to explain what the table is providing.


The format below should be used for the presentation of this section:

Business Strategic Objective State the Objective (from the case study) Explanation (in your own words; for the new objective, incorporate how the management team would use it to improve the business of GGFRT:
4 (new objective)

Use what you learn from the case study to create your own idea for the IT vision statement (future IT goals); and use the case study situation at GGFRT to write the IT mission statement for the IT department (current IT goals).

Refer to the course materials on mission and vision, particularly the reading on “Creating a Future Vision for the Chief Information Officer”. If you need help on a mission statement, do a little research on the web; you will find many examples of IT mission statements.

  • who the participants are,
  • what each of their roles are on the governance board (why each is a member of the governance body, not their general roles in the company),
  • what specific governance methodology should be established/justification (i.e. COBIT, ITIL, etc.; documents in various weeks’ content),
  • what responsibilities the governance body would have, and
  • how they would prioritize IT projects (prioritization tool, criteria that is being considered for determining project importance)

Refer to the course materials on governance and you should supplement those documents with external research. IT Governance methodologies are covered in Week 5’s course content.

Current System

Spring 2019



Strategic Goal aligned to Business Unit/


Business Benefits IT spring ‘19 Resources (people, equipment)

The “right” and “wrong” answers should do with if you correctly incorporated the course concepts from the course content materials and addressed all parts of the assignment. The content of the mission and vision statements you create is not as important as that it makes sense considering the course content and the Case Study.

Mechanistic Versus Organic

Mechanistic Versus Organic





What do we mean when we talk about mechanistic and organic organizational structure? How do these types of structures influence organizational performance and the ability of an organization to learn and adapt to changes in the environment? Is one type preferable over the other?

Complete the following:

  • Briefly define mechanistic organizational structure and organic organizational structure.
  • Compare and contrast the main differences between the two types of organizational structure.
  • Explain how environmental changes translate into mechanistic versus organic organizational structure.
  • Describe how the current environment is changing and where you see it heading.
  • Compare how mechanistic organizations handle the turbulence of hyper-change and hyper-competition versus how organic organizations address the same issues.
  • Explain which type of organizational structure you feel is more applicable to the current local and global environment, and why.

To successfully complete this assessment, you will need to conduct some research into mechanistic and organic organizational structure. You should format this assessment as a research paper following APA 6th edition guidelines for both style and citing sources, making sure that you also use correct grammar and mechanics. There is no required minimum or maximum page length; however, you should strive to be as detailed as possible in addressing each bullet point, while also being as clear and concise as possible.

Please note: The term environment is used throughout this course to mean all of the external factors that affect an organization. These include, but are not limited to, the overall global market, the industry as a whole, and the financial market.

Single Discursive Essay

Single Discursive Essay


GENDER-NON-CONFORMITY in ELIZABETHAN DRAMA Shakespeare & Marlowe OK- ELIZABETHAN? QUEEN ELIZABETH I OF ENGLAND r.1558-1503 CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE? Born 1564- Canterbury Poor background- but GETS EDUCATED! Poor background- but GETS EDUCATED! AND WINS A SCHOLARSHIP TO THE KING’S SCHOOL, CANTERBURY (probably the oldest school in the world) and then ANOTHER scholarship- to CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE THIS REQUIRES SERIOUS HARD WORK he receives a very CLASSICAL education (in the new, post-reformation style) His education leaves Marlowe in a couple of rather AMBIGUOUS positions: 1) He is a poor man with a gentleman’s education 2) He has been given access to pagan classical ideas in a country that is based around Christianity as a poor man with an education HE HAS TO LOOK FOR WORK and he finds two jobs PLAYWRIGHT and SPY (both disreputable) 1580s- creation of first professional English Secret Service targeted at CATHOLICS who aimed to replace Elizabeth with a Catholic monarch through assassination and/or invasion and/or rebellion Used a lot of DOUBLE AGENTS- probably including Marlowe Murky and dangerous work- but well paid! Same goes for being a playwright! Theatre people had connections to noblemen, but also to brothels, taverns and criminals They were not respectable- in fact, playwrights usually concealed their identities But they could make good money as someone with a classical education in a Christian country Marlowe has access to some UNORTHODOX ideas about sex, religion and government LIKE • sleeping around is great • having sex with other men is totally fine and normal • there is no god, or certainly no one god, and no afterlife • kings and emperors are tyrants and should be deposed • the world is not run by providence, but is basically materialistic TRANSLATES • OVID’s AMORES (about SEX) • LUCAN’s PHARSALIA (about REPUBLICANISM) as a • man who liked to have sex with men • highly-educated lower-class person in a rigidly class-structured society • person familiar at close hand with the less reputable operations of politics and business these ideas held a strong attraction for Marlowe So Marlowe’s kind of an outsider, with weird dangerous radical ideas out of the deep past but what’s AMAZING is he manages to leverage these ideas into INCREDIBLY POPULAR THEATRE that has a huge influence on popular thought ALL HIS PLAYS ARE RADICAL BUT EDWARD II IS PARTICULARLY NOTABLE FOR ITS RADICALISM ON QUESTIONS OF SEX & GENDER and for its ENGLISH setting it makes use of the fairly new HISTORY PLAY genre usually seen as beginning with Skelton’s Magnyfycence in 1519, this genre had mainly been used for Tudor propaganda and nationalistic storytelling 1591- Henry VI part 1 by Shakespeare and maybe Thomas Nashe (both Marlowe’s friends or acquaintances) CHANGES EVERYTHING Marlowe is quick to take notice He goes to Holinshed’s Chronicles (available online at http://www.english.ox.ac.uk/holinshed/ ) and comes out with a story of a king who LIKED BOYS and GOT MURDERED he uses this to make a play about • Being intensely frustrated by the limitations the world places on your behavior • Transgressing them • And being destroyed for it ALL THE MAIN CHARACTERS DO THIS! but Edward in the KING! He’s allowed to do ANYTHING he WANTS EXCEPT it seems fall in love with another man Marlowe gets away with depicting a man in love with another man because 1) it’s historical 2) Edward gets punished for his transgression but the key thing to remember is HE GETS AWAY WITH CLEARLY AND SENSITIVELY DEPICTING A MAN IN LOVE WITH ANOTHER MAN GAVESTON: These are not men for me, I must have wanton poets, pleasant wits, Musicians, that with touching of a string May draw the pliant King which way I please. Music and poetry is his delight; Therefore I’ll have Italian masks by night, Sweet speeches, comedies, and pleasing shows; And in the day, when he shall walk abroad, Like sylvan nymphs my pages shall be clad; My men, like satyrs grazing on the lawns, Shall with their goat feet dance the antic hay. Sometime a lovely boy in Dian’s shape, With hair that gilds the water as it glides, Crownets of pearl about his naked arms, And in his sportful hands an olive tree, To hide those parts which men delight to see, Shall bathe him in a spring; and there, hard by, One like Actæon, peeping through the grove, Shall by the angry goddess be transformed, And running in the likeness of an hart, By yelping hounds pulled down, shall seem to die: Such things as these best please his majesty, this is A powerfully attractive depiction of the pleasures and pains of sexual transgression it: • makes a statement about males being sexually attracted to other males, and what that’s like • gives this statement both prestige and immediacy by bringing together classical ideas and English history • conceals what its up to enough to avoid getting into trouble, but not so much that you don’t notice MORTIMER SENIOR: Nephew, I must to Scotland: thou stayest here. Leave now to oppose thyself against the King: Thou seest by nature he is mild and calm; And seeing his mind so dotes on Gaveston, Let him without controlment have his will. The mightiest Kings have had their minions Great Alexander loved Hephaestion, The conquering Hercules for Hylas wept, And for Patroclus stern Achilles droop’d. And not kings only, but the wisest men; The Roman Tully loved Octavius, Grave Socrates wild Alcibiades. Then let his grace, whose youth is flexible, And promiseth as much as we can wish, Freely enjoy that vain lightheaded earl; For riper years will wean him from such toys. again, this: • makes a statement about males being sexually attracted to other males, and what that’s like • gives this statement both prestige and immediacy by bringing together classical ideas and English history • conceals what its up to enough to avoid getting into trouble, but not so much that you don’t notice GAVESTON. My Lord, I hear it whispered everywhere That I am banished and must fly the land. EDWARD. ‘Tis true, sweet Gaveston; oh, were it false! The legate of the Pope will have it so, And thou must hence, or I shall be deposed. But I will reign to be revenged of them; And therefore, sweet friend, take it patiently. Live where thou wilt, I’ll send thee gold enough; And long thou shall not stay; or, if thou dost, I’ll come to thee; my love shall ne’er decline. GAVESTON. Is all my hope turned to this hell of grief? EDWARD. Rend not my heart with thy too piercing words: Thou from this land, I from myself am banished. GAVESTON. To go from hence grieves not poor Gaveston; But to forsake you, in whose gracious looks The blessedness of Gaveston remains; For nowhere else seeks he felicity. EDWARD. And only this torments my wretched soul, That, whether I will or no, thou must depart. Be Governor of Ireland in my stead, And there abide till fortune call thee home. Here, take my picture, and let me wear thine. O, might I keep thee here, as I do this, Happy were I, but now most miserable. GAVESTON. ‘Tis something to be pitied of a King. EDWARD. Thou shalt not hence; I’ll hide thee, Gaveston. GAVESTON. I shall be found, and then ’twill grieve me more. EDWARD. Kind words and mutual talk makes our grief greater. Therefore, with dumb embracement, let us part. Stay, Gaveston; I cannot leave thee thus. GAVESTON. For every look, my love drops down a tear: Seeing I must go, do not renew my sorrow. EDWARD. The time is little that thou hast to stay, And, therefore, give me leave to look my fill. But, come, sweet friend; I’ll bear thee on thy way. GAVESTON. The peers will frown. EDWARD. I pass not for their anger. Come, let’s go: O, that we might as well return as go! This is RADICAL at points like this the play’s essential nature as a PROTEST becomes dangerously clear at points like this the play’s essential nature as a PROTEST becomes dangerously clear and this dangerous clarity eventually got Marlowe in serious trouble! Because of his opinions, Marlowe was almost certainly MURDERED on orders from someone in the upper levels of the Elizabethan government Some of Marlowe’s opinions, as reported to the Privy Council a few days before he was murdered by government agents: That St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned alwaies in his bosome, that he vsed him as the sinners of Sodoma. That all they that loue not Tobacco & Boies were fooles. That all the apostles were fishermen and base fellowes neyther of wit nor worth, that Paull only had wit but he was a timerous fellow in bidding men to be subiect to magistrates against his Conscience. That he had as good Right to Coine as the Queene of England Marlowe is an example of the power of literature to PROTEST and to powerfully challenge the boundaries of what is allowed and of how dangerous such protest can be Shakespeare’s comedies offer an example of a very different way of writing about gender-non-conformity and the constrictions of societal roles One that protests less but asks a lot of difficult questions. As You Like It Written several years after Marlowe’s death But refers to Marlowe twice! A play where gendered behavior, and the limitations it imposes, are central Makes major use of the stage convention of cross-dressing Rosalind • Is played by a male bodied actor Rosalind • Is played by a male bodied actor • Who dresses up as a female character Rosalind • Is played by a male bodied actor • Who dresses up as a female character • Who dresses up as a male character Rosalind • Is played by a male bodied actor • Who dresses up as a female character • Who dresses up as a male character • Who then pretends to be female Rosalind • • • • Is played by a male bodied actor Who dresses up as a female character Who dresses up as a male character Who then pretends to be female GOT THAT? Questions are being asked here about gender, like: • What do different genders allow you to do? • What do they stop you doing? • What do they make you do? • What might you want out of them? WHAT CAN’T THIS REPRESENT? Rosalind can be seen as: • • • • • • • A girl who is attracted to men A boy who is attracted to men A girl involved in a flirtation with another girl A girl who wants to be a boy A boy who wants to be a girl Someone for whom gender is a trap and a problem Someone who is able to move fluidly between genders to solve problems OLIVER Be of good cheer, youth: you a man! you lack a man’s heart. ROSALIND I do so, I confess it. Ah, sirrah, a body would think this was well counterfeited! I pray you, tell your brother how well I counterfeited. Heigh-ho! OLIVER This was not counterfeit: there is too great testimony in your complexion that it was a passion of earnest. ROSALIND Counterfeit, I assure you. OLIVER Well then, take a good heart and counterfeit to be a man. ROSALIND So I do: but, i’ faith, I should have been a woman by right. CELIA Come, you look paler and paler: pray you, draw homewards. Good sir, go with us. OLIVER That will I, for I must bear answer back How you excuse my brother, Rosalind. ROSALIND I shall devise something: but, I pray you, commend my counterfeiting to him. Will you go? Shakespeare is involved in opening up a space to consider what gender-nonconformity looks like And this space is so wide, so productive of questions That 400 years later not only gay or queer people but also trans or genderqueer identified people might can still find something interesting in it But at the same time, it cannot be tied down! YOU CAN’T SHOW THAT THIS IS ABOUT TRANS OR EVEN GAY DESIRE YOU CAN’T GET A CLEAR STATEMENT ABOUT GENDER OUT OF IT YOU CAN’T BE SURE IT’S SAYING ANYTHING AT ALL! (and in this it’s very unlike Marlowe) Where Marlowe is openly insurrectionary Shakespeare is subtly subversive Aphra Behn, Katherine Philips and Anne Killigrew 17th Century poetry of Love Between Women Katherine Philips 1632-1664 Born into middle-class London family of PURITANS! ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (English revolution) 1648- age of 16 Marries James Philips Who was 24 and a Parlimentarian/Puritan AND MOVES TO WALES! (DISASTER!) gets to know HENRY VAUGHAN Begins to circulate her poems in MANUSCRIPT (MANUS- hand SCRIPTUS- WRITTEN) Her circulation is based on a linked series of COTERIES Poems are sent as correspondence to friends, who then pass them on to their own circle of friends They may eventually get copied widely, but they are never ‘publicly available’ This gives her • • • • Control over the text Control over the audience Respectability (not done for money) Anonymity (her poems were often initialled, but you had to be ‘in the know’) • Freedom from censorship (remember she’s a royalist) • Low cost to circulation (like a blog vs a printed book) central to this distribution was the SOCIETY OF FRIENDSHIP (founded c.1651) in which she is known as THE MATCHLESS ORINDA allows her to circulate poems between her (royalist) circles in WALES, LONDON & DUBLIN peripheral to the society are all kinds of influential and important people but CENTRAL to the society are Philips intense relationships with a series of other women First with Mary Aubrey (Rosania) (c.1648-51) The with Anne Owen (Lucasia) (c.1651- 1663) Inconstancy in Friendship Lovely Apostate! what was my offence? Or am I punish’d for Obedience? Must thy strange rigours find as strange a time? The Act, & Season, are an equall crime. Of what thy most ingenious Scorn can doe Must I be subject, & Spectatour too! Or were the sufferings, & sins too few To be sustain’d by me, perform’d by you! Unless with Nero, your uncurb’d desire Be to survey the Rome, you set on fire. While wounded for, & by your power I At once your Martyr, & your prospect dy. This is my doom, & such a ridling fate, As all impossibles does complicate. For obligation heere is injury, Constancy crime, friendship a heresy. And you appear so much on ruine bent, Your owne destruction gives you new content. For our two spirits did so long agree, You must undoe your self to ruine me. And like some frantick Goddess, be enclin’d To raze the Temple, where you were enshrin’d. And to be furious to the last degree, Kill that which gave you Immortallity. For glorious Friendship, whence your honour springs, Ly’s gasping, in the croud of common things. And I’m so odious, that for being kind, Doubled, & study’d Murthers are design’d. Thy sin’s all Paradox! for shouldst thou be Thy self again, ’twould be severe to me. For thy repentance, coming now so late, Would only change, & not relieve the fate. So dangerous is the consequence of ill, Thy least of crimes, is to be cruell still. For of thy smiles I should yet more complain, If I should live to be betray’d again. Go then (fayr Tyrant,) & securely be Both from my kindness, & my anger free. While I, who to the Swains had sung your fame, And taught each Eccho to repeat your name, Will now my privat sorrow’s entertain. To Rocks, & Rivers, not to you complain. And though before, our Union cherish’d me, ’Tis now my Pleasure, that we disagree. For from my Passion, your last rigours grew, And you slight me, because I courted you But my worst vow’s shall be your happiness, And ne’re to be disturb’d by my distress. And though it would my sacred flame pollute, To make my heart a scorned prostitute, Yet I’le respect the Author of my death, And kiss the hand that rob’s me of my breath. Then to the Great Lucasia have recourse, There gather up new excellence and force, Till by a free unbyass’d clear Commerce, Endearments which no Tongue can e’re rehearse, Lucasia and Orinda shall thee give Eternity, and make even Friendship live. I now see by Experience that one may love too much, and offend more by a too fond Sincerity, than by a careless Indifferency, provided it be but handsomly varnish’d over with civil Respect. I find too there are few Friendships in the World Marriage-proof. . . We may generally conclude the Marriage of a Friend to be the Funeral of a Friendship […] there is indeed a certain secret Meanness in our Souls, which mercenarily inclines our Affections to those with whom we must necessarily be oblig’d for the most part to converse, and from whom we expect the chiefest outward conveniencies. And thus we are apt to flatter our selves that we are constant and unchang’d in our Friendship, tho’ we insensibly fall into Coldness and Estrangement. Then… another intense friendship All that I can tell you of my Desires to see your Ladiship will be repetition, for I had with as much earnestness as I was capable of, Begg’d it then, and yet have so much of the Beggar in me, that I must redouble that importunity now, and tell you, That I Gasp for you with an impatience that is not to be imagin’d by any Soul wound up to a less concern in Friendship then yours is, and therefore I cannot hope to make others sensible of my vast desires to enjoy you, but I can safely appeal to your own Illustrious Heart, where I am sure of a Court of Equity to relieve me in all the Complaints and Suplications my Friendship can put up. Has become very well-known 1664 unauthorized (pirated) edition of her poems published She is publicly upset- was she really? Probably. 1604-DIES! 1607- Posthumous Official Poems 1705- Letters published How do we understand her poems? How do we understand her poems? Her contemporaries, pretty much unanimously, understood her as describing intense but pure, non-sexual friendship Refered to her as ‘the virtuous Orinda’ (often in opposition to Aphra Behn, who wasn’t virtuous at all) She was drawing on the available literature of male ‘friendship’ Authors like Thomas Churchyard and Walter Dorke (real name) They reference Plato, Cicero and Montaigne to describe intense male-on-male friendships that definitely DIDN’T involve sodomy Philips claims this kind of intense non-sexual friendship for women Causes a contemporary debate, not about whether it existed, but about whether women were capable of it- a debate she basically wins! So they took her at her word? Well, mostly… They talk of Sappho, but, alas! the shame! Ill Manners soil the lustre of her fame. Orinda’s inward Vertue is so bright, That, like a Lantern’s fair enclosed light, It through the Paper shines where she doth write. Honour and Friendship, and the gen’rous scorn Of things for which we were not born, (Things that can only by a fond disease, Like that of Girls our vicious stomachs please) Are the instructive subjects of her Pen. Abraham Cowley on Philips- protesting too much? Phillips also draws on METAPHYSICAL poetry, especially John DONNE Dull sublunary lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense) cannot admit Absence, because it doth remove Those things which elemented it. If they be two, they are two so As stiff twin compasses are two; Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show To move, but doth, if the other do. But we by a love so much refined, That our selves know not what it is, Inter-assured of the mind, Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss. And though it in the center sit, Yet when the other far doth roam, It leans and hearkens after it, And grows erect, as that comes home Our two souls therefore, which are one, Though I must go, endure not yet A breach, but an expansion, Like gold to airy thinness beat. Compare Philips I did not live until this time Crowned my felicity, When I could say without a crime, I am not thine, but thee. This carcase breathed and walked and slept, So that the world believed There was a soul the motions kept, But they were all deceived. For as a watch by art is wound To motion, such was mine; But never had Orinda found A soul till she found thine; Which now inspires, cures, and supplies, And guides my darkened breast; For thou art all that I can prize, My joy, my life, my rest. No bridegroom’s nor crown-conqueror’s mirth To mine compared can be; They have but pieces of this earth, I’ve all the world in thee. Then let our flames still light and shine, And no false fear control, As innocent as our design, Immortal as our soul. Takes the BODY out of Donne Goes from ‘grows erect’ to ‘as innocent as our design’ FROM So must pure lovers’ souls descend T’ affections, and to faculties, Which sense may reach and apprehend, Else a great prince in prison lies. To our bodies turn we then, that so Weak men on love reveal’d may look; Love’s mysteries in souls do grow, But yet the body is his book (DONNE) TO Thus our twin-souls in one shall grow, And teach the World new love, Redeem the age and sex, and show A flame Fate dares not move : And courting Death to be our friend, Our lives together too shall end. (PHILIPS) She is combining FRIENDSHIP LITERATURE with LOVE POETRY to create a new kind of writing which allows her to express HER INTENSE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER WOMEN and to develop a kind of spiritual love between ‘friends’ which she considers superior to physical love: All Love is sacred, and the marriage-tie Hath much of honour and divinity. But Lust, Design, or some unworthy ends May mingle there, which are despis’d by Friends. Passion hath violent extremes, and thus All oppositions are contiguous. So when the end is serv’d their Love will bate, If Friendship make it not more fortunate: Friendship, that Love’s elixir, that pure fire Which burns the clearer ’cause it burns the higher so they’re NOT lesbian poems as we understand the term they have to be approached on their OWN terms Luc. Say, my Orinda, why so sad? Orin. Absence from thee doth tear my heart; Which, since with thine it union had, Each parting splits. Luc. And can we part? Orin. Our bodies must. Luc. But never we: Our souls, without the help of Sense, By ways more noble and more free Can meet, and hold intelligence. Orin. And yet those Souls, when first they met, Looked out at windows through the eyes. Luc. But soon did such acquaintance get, Nor Fate nor Time can them surprise. Orin. Absence will rob us of that bliss To which this friendship title brings: Love’s fruits and joys are made by this Useless as crowns to captived Kings. Luc. Friendship’s a Science, and we know There Contemplation’s most employed. Orin. Religion’s so, but practice too, And both by niceties destroyed. Luc. But who ne’er parts can never meet, And so that happiness were lost. Orin. Thus Pain and Death are sadly sweet, Since Health and Heav’n such price must cost. Chorus. But we shall come where no rude hand shall sever, And there we’ll meet and part no more for ever. This mixes two genres of dialogue •LOVER’S DIALOGUE •DIALOGUE BETWEEN SOUL AND BODY Luc. Say, my Orinda, why so sad? Orin. Absence from thee doth tear my heart; Which, since with thine it union had, Each parting splits. Luc. And can we part? Orin. Our bodies must. Luc. But never we: Our souls, without the help of Sense, By ways more noble and more free Can meet, and hold intelligence. Orin. And yet those Souls, when first they met, Looked out at windows through the eyes. Luc. But soon did such acquaintance get, Nor Fate nor Time can them surprise. Orin. Absence will rob us of that bliss To which this friendship title brings: Love’s fruits and joys are made by this Useless as crowns to captived Kings. Luc. Friendship’s a Science, and we know There Contemplation’s most employed. Orin. Religion’s so, but practice too, And both by niceties destroyed. Luc. But who ne’er parts can never meet, And so that happiness were lost. Orin. Thus Pain and Death are sadly sweet, Since Health and Heav’n such price must cost. Chorus. But we shall come where no rude hand shall sever, And there we’ll meet and part no more for ever. Aphra Behn 1640- 1669 if Philips is SUPER-RESPECTABLE Behn is ULTRA-SCANDALOUS (and she lied about her life a lot!) born to lower-class parents but with some UPPER-CLASS connections in ROYALIST and CATHOLIC circles 1663- goes to South America (Surinam) 1664- comes back and marries Johan Behn (if he existed) By 1666 is presenting as a widow 1666 Employed as a SPY in the Netherlands- doesn’t get paid Goes bankrupt 1670- puts on her first play First English professional woman writer! which means SHE PUBLISHES! FOR MONEY!! WITH HER NAME ON IT!!! if Philips insisted women could be friends, Behn insisted they could be WITS Indeed that day ’twas Acted first, there comes me into the Pit, a long, lither, phlegmatick, white, illfavour’d, wretched Fop, an Officer in Masquerade newly transported with a Scarf & Feather out of France, a sorry Animal that has nought else to shield it from the uttermost contempt of all mankind, but that respect which we afford to Rats and Toads, which though we do not well allow to live, yet when considered as a part of God’s Creation, we make honourable mention of them. A thing, Reader— but no more of such a Smelt: This thing, I tell ye, opening that which serves it for a mouth, out issued such a noise as this to those that sate about it, that they were to expect a woful Play, God damn him, for it was a woman’s. Now how this came about I am not sure, but I suppose he brought it piping hot from some who had with him the reputation of a villanous Wit: for Creatures of his size of sense talk without all imagination, such scraps as they pick up from other folks. I would not for a world be taken arguing with such a propertie as this; but if I thought there were a man of any tolerable parts, who could upon mature deliberation distinguish well his right hand from his left, and justly state the difference between the number of sixteen and two, yet had this prejudice upon him; I would take a little pains to make him know how much he errs. For waving the examination why women having equal education with men, were not as capable of knowledge, of whatsoever sort as well as they: I’ll only say as I have touch’d before, that Plays have no great room for that which is men’s great advantage over women, that is Learning […] affectation hath always had a greater share both in the action and discourse of men than truth and judgement have; and for our Modern ones, except our most unimitable Laureat, I dare to say I know of none that write at such a formidable rate, but that a woman may well hope to reach their greatest heights. 1682 pisses off the KING- not allowed on stage for a few years Starts writing POETRY and NOVELS 1689 DIES- poor, but gets buried in Westminster abbey- not in Poet’s Corner, but in the corridor outside! RIP Here lies a proof that wit can never be Defence enough against mortality SO Poems are from the early 1680s, in the style of the libertine court wits (more like Rochester- died 1680- than Dryden) But unlike (most) libertine poems, they usually have FEMALE speakers Writes a witty poetry of FEMALE sexual desire Imitation of Horace- Gender switched! Here’s Cowley’s first stanza To whom now Pyrrha, art thou kind? To what heart-ravisht lover, Dost thou thy golden locks unbind, Thy hidden sweets discover, And with large bounty open set All the bright stores of thy rich cabinet? Here’s hers What mean those Amorous Curls of Jet? For what heart-Ravished Maid Dost thou thy Hair in order set, Thy Wanton Tresses Braid? And thy vast Store of Beauties open lay, That the deluded Fancy leads astray. Behn insists that • women have sexual desires (duh!) • Men (not boys!) are potential objects of desire • Men seduce women! (who are the ones who get into trouble about it) • Men are vain, fickle, duplicitous etc. -all the things men charge women with in misogynistic poems of this period To the Fair Clarinda Who made love to me, imagin’d more than woman. Fair lovely Maid, or if that Title be Too weak, too Feminine for Nobler thee, Permit a Name that more Approaches Truth: And let me call thee, Lovely Charming Youth. This last will justifie my soft complaint, While that may serve to lessen my constraint; And without Blushes I the Youth persue, When so much beauteous Woman is in view. Against thy Charms we struggle but in vain With thy deluding Form thou giv’st us pain, While the bright Nymph betrays us to the Swain. In pity to our Sex sure thou wer’t sent, That we might Love, and yet be Innocent: For sure no Crime with thee we can commit; Or if we shou’d – thy Form excuses it. For who, that gathers fairest Flowers believes A Snake lies hid beneath the Fragrant Leaves. Thou beauteous Wonder of a different kind, Soft Cloris with the dear Alexis join’d; When e’er the Manly part of thee, wou’d plead Though tempts us with the Image of the Maid, While we the noblest Passions do extend The Love to Hermes, Aphrodite the Friend. PHILIPS BEHN Manuscript Coterie Respectable Souls Friendship Metaphysicals Subversive? Professional Public Scandalous Bodies Sex Libertines Insurrectionary? ANNE KILLIGREW – 1660-85 CLERGYMAN’S DAUGHTER but a POSH clergyman receives an education POET and PAINTER influenced by Phillips but also in touch with some different things because of her situation becomes maid of honour to Mary of Modena – wife of the King’s brother she circulated a lot of poems with male speakers addressing women BUT IT’S THE POEMS SHE DIDN’T CIRCULATE THAT ARE REALLY INTERESTING dies aged 25 of smallpox her father decides to publish her poems- but finds three poems he’d never seen among her papers Is kinda freaked out by them and says they’re probably not hers- but publishes them anyway LET’S LOOK AT A COUPLE OF THEM On the Soft and Gentle Motions of Eudora Divine Thalia strike th’ Harmonious Lute, But with a Stroke so Gentle as may sute The silent gliding of the Howers, Or yet the calmer growth of Flowers; Th’ ascending or the falling Dew, Which none can see, though all find true. For thus alone, Can be shewn, How downie, how smooth, Eudora doth Move, How Silken her Actions appear, The Aire of her Face, Of a gentler Grace Then those that do stroke the Eare. Her Address so sweet, So Modestly Meet, That ’tis not the Lowd though Tuneable String, Can shewforth so soft, so Noyseless a Thing! O This to express from thy Hand must fall, Then Musicks self, something more Musical. UPON A LITTLE LADY UNDER THE DISCIPLINE OF AN EXCELLENT PERSON A little Nymph whose Limbs divinely bright, Lay like a Body of Collected Light, But not to Love and Courtship so disclos’d, But to the Rigour of a Dame oppos’d, Who instant on the Faire with Words and Blows, Now chastens Error, and now Virtue shews. […] I turn’d the little Nymph to view, She singing and did smiling shew; Eudora led a heav’nly strain, Her Angels Voice did eccho it again! I then decreed no Sacriledge was wrought, But neerer Heav’n this Piece of Heaven was brought. She also brighter seem’d, than she had been, Vertue darts forth a Light’ning ‘bove the Skin. Eudora also shew’d as heretofore, When her soft Graces I did first adore. I saw, what one did Nobly Will, The other sweetly did fulfil; Their Actions all harmoniously did sute, And she had only tun’d the Lady like her Lute. Transgender Love Stories The trans tipping point! (apparently we are past it) Trans /= Gay Trans /= Gay (any more) 1972 “Pride” Parade “Sexuality” approved writing vs disapproved writing Genres of trans writing prior to c.2000 • Memoir / Autobiography • Erotica • Self-help • Poetry • Zines! TRANS MEMOIR • About transition • Written for a cis audience • Plot structure: trans person has a problem which can be solved by becoming more normal 1922! 1976 On a physical plane I have myself achieved, as far as is humanly possible, the identity I craved. Distilled from those sacramental fancies of my childhood has come the conviction that the nearest humanity approaches to perfection is in the persons of good women—and especially perhaps in the persons of kind, intelligent and healthy women past their menopause, no longer shackled by the mechanisms of sex but creative still in other kinds, aware still in their love and sensuality, graceful in experience, past ambition but never beyond aspiration. In all countries, among all races, on the whole these are the people I most admire: and it is into their ranks, I flatter myself, if only in the rear file, if only on the flank, that I have now admitted myself. POETRY SHE Here I am, sitting weeping, this lonely feeling creeping into my inner self, “She,” my mirror. As I ponder my fate to be how to help this inner me, an open heart, “She,” my mirror. Why is joy so tearful here? Now I’ve found her, cheer! My gladness smiles for her “She,” my mirror. Now I hope, with a fervent heart, she will play a joyous part in my life, “She,” my mirror. To the future I now gaze, to seek happiness beyond this haze, to be free, “She,” my mirror. SELF-HELP SELF-HELP Zines Zines Zines So at the same time as “trans” is being used as the “evil twin” to gayness, in order to help gayness become acceptable, there is also a line of acceptable/unacceptable being developed within transness LAMB draws on ZINES whereas MOCK draws on Memoir Janet Mock Awareness of tropes! My assignment at birth is only one facet of my identity, one that I am no longer invested in concealing. Acknowledging this fact and how it has shaped my understanding of self has given me the power to challenge the ways in which we judge, discriminate, and stigmatize women based on bodily differences. The media’s insatiable appetite for transsexual women’s bodies contributes to the systematic othering of trans women as modern-day freak shows, portrayals that validate and feed society’s dismissal and dehumanization of trans women. The U.S. media’s shallow lens dates back to 1952, when Christine Jorgensen became the media’s first “sex change” darling, breaking barriers and setting the tone for how our stories are told. These stories, though vital to culture change and our own sense of recognition, rarely report on the barriers that make it nearly impossible for trans women, specifically those of color and those from low-income communities, to lead thriving lives. They’re tried-and-true transition stories tailored to the cis gaze. What I want people to realize is that “transitioning” is not the end of the journey. Yes, it’s an integral part of revealing who we are to ourselves and the world, but there’s much life afterward. These stories earn us visibility but fail at reporting on what our lives are like beyond our bodies, hormones, surgeries, birth names, and before-and-after photos. Challenging the media tropes has been the most difficult part of sharing my story. On the one hand, there are through lines, common elements in our journeys as trans women, that are undeniable. At the same time, plugging people into the “transition” narrative (which I have been subjected to) erases the nuance of experience, the murkiness of identity, and the undeniable influence of race, class, and gender. It’s no coincidence that the genre of memoir from trans people has been dominated by those with access, mainly white trans men and women, and these types of disparities greeted me head-on when I stepped forward publicly. Ways she challenges the narrative • Talks about issues in her life over than being transincluding race and class • Describes time as a sex worker • Describes trans community and friendships • Challenges reader directly • Includes a LOVE STORY as well as a transition story Challenging reader directly… One of the reasons the gay rights movement has been successful is its urging that gays and lesbians everywhere, no matter their age, color, or wealth, come out of the closet. This widespread visibility has shifted culture and challenged misconceptions. People often transpose the coming-out experience on me, asking how it felt to be in the closet, to have been stealth. These questions have always puzzled me. Unlike sexuality, gender is visible. I never hid my gender. Every day that I stepped out into the sunlight, unapologetically femme, I was a visible woman. People assume that I was in the closet because I didn’t disclose that I was assigned male at birth. What people are really asking is “Why didn’t you correct people when they perceived you as a real woman?” Frankly, I’m not responsible for other people’s perceptions and what they consider real or fake. We must abolish the entitlement that deludes us into believing that we have the right to make assumptions about people’s identities and project those assumptions onto their genders and bodies. It is not a woman’s duty to disclose that she’s trans to every person she meets. This is not safe for a myriad of reasons. We must shift the burden of coming out from trans women, and accusing them of hiding or lying, and focus on why it is unsafe for women to be trans. … but who is the reader here? What do we make of this love story? The meet cute Pop beats filled my head as my booty and voluminous hair, draped over my bare shoulders, bounced on the dance floor. In this swaying mass, no one’s past mattered. Every person’s only requisite was to keep moving. I twirled and twerked to Kelis’s “Milkshake,” my gold-tinted curls bobbing around my face. I felt the brightness of my wide, toothy smile and the ampleness of my cheekbones, a feature given to me by Mom, and the prominence of my forehead, inherited from Dad. My pointed widow’s peak draped a thick tendril over my right eye, shaded in bronze eye shadow and framed by an arched brown brow. I was soon stopped in midorbit by the sight of a man. Fuck, he’s hot! was my first thought. His skin was the color of sweet toffee, the kind that gets stuck in your teeth. He had shiny black wavy hair, just long enough to run my fingers through, and that indistinguishable ethnic look that one could take for Dominican or Brazilian or some kind of swirly black. He looked dangerously yummy, with sly brown eyes, one of which was punctuated with a horizontal scar that matched the mischievous curve of his smirk. His beauty—birthed out of my mental sketch of Mr. Hypothetical Husband—led me to commit to sleeping with him if the night led us to a bed. He said hey, and I said hey back. “I’m on my way to the bathroom, but will you be here when I come back?” he asked. I nodded while flipping my curls to the other side of my face: my go-to “My Hair Is Real I’m So Flirty and Effortless” move. He returned a few minutes later with that same smirk. “Take a walk with me,” he said, nodding toward the exit. “I don’t even know your name,” I said. “If you come with me, maybe I’ll tell you,” he said, pointing toward the exit. I rolled my eyes and smiled as we walked out the door. The Happy Ending I’ve experienced varying levels of disclosure throughout my life. At thirteen, I told Wendi I was a girl. At fifteen, I told my mother and my siblings to call me Janet. At twenty-six, I told Aaron that I was a different kind of woman. At twenty-eight, I shed my anonymity in Marie Claire because I wanted to disclose an aspect of my identity that I felt was widely misunderstood, and often invisible. That catalytic piece moved people to think differently, disrupting the portrait of womanhood. It was the pivot in which I decided to invite the world into my life, when I chose to acknowledge that though you may not perceive me as trans, I am trans, and being trans—as is being black, Hawaiian, young, and a woman—is an integral part of my experience, one that I have no investment in erasing. All of these parts of myself coexist in my body, a representation of evolution and migration and truth. My body carries within its frame beauty and agony, certainty and murkiness, loathing and love. And I’ve learned to accept it, as is. For so much of my life, I wished into the dark to be someone else, some elusive ideal that represented possibility and contentment. I was steadily reaching in the dark across a chasm that separated who I was and who I thought I should be. Somewhere along the way, I grew weary of grasping at possible selves, just out of reach. So I put my arms down and wrapped them around me. I began healing by embracing myself through the foreboding darkness until the sunrise shone on my face. Eventually, I emerged, and surrendered to the brilliance, discovering truth, beauty, and peace that was already mine. Sybil Lamb Sybil Lamb Sybil Lamb Sybil Lamb Where did this book come from? Where Janet Mock is subverting the established mainsteam, Sybil Lamb is building something out of the assorted parts of outsider writing What do we make of this love story? The Meet Cute About halfway through the night Sibyl walked in. She wandered around for a lil bit, then she saw Sissy serving ice cream. Sissy had no eyebrows, and gash-scars across the left of her face. You could see the marks from where she used to have a dozen face piercings. She had choppy ultra-white hair and was wearing one-third of an $80 t-shirt, mutilated into a micro halter-top. She was thin as a coat hanger even though she kept snacking on her own ice cream, using the same spoon she scooped caramel with. Sybil didn’t notice her clean it in-between. She went up to the ice cream stand and stood there just staring and scowling a bit. Sissy looked up at her and said “So hay.” Then she just burnt her eyes at Syb like what she just said was possibly intended to be final. Her mind was ticking away loudly right behind her micro tiny pupils. At last she said, “what’s up with you?” Sybil herself was spinning her wheels and just throwing up dirt. I must be on a rock or sumthin’, she thought. She just stared back at the ice cream lady for a long time, then said “huh?” and then flipped a lazy punk-rock sneer at her. It was, in fact, a secret punk-rock gesture code. In punk circles, it sent a message of sexual swagger and unflappable apathy. “Queen, you roll up here makin fucked up eyes at melike you’re about to swing at me. Can I help you??” Sissy put her hands apart on the counter and squared her shoulders and stuck her face in Syb’s. She was perfect at this. She is more than this room, Syb thought. All the women I løve are nasty, crazy faggots and I’m amassing a collection of them. Syb smiled. ““Bullshit!!!! Lady, you are running a giant cartoon ice cream stand!!! And I really like your shirt. It’s so flattering.” […] Three songs into the MISC. set Sissy got bored, and came up to where Syb was dancing and stuck her tongue in her. They were both at fault for all the stumbling and falling into people that followed. Sissy was drunk, and Syb was really high, but then so was everybuddy else. One of them toppled the other into a pile of empty beer boxes. Soon they were pushing each other around in the trash, pinning each other down or up against a pile of garbage cans. Sumbuddy yelled “Fags making out in the garbage!!” and a photo flash went off. The “Happy” Ending You had to be dedicated all the way to do all the mindless werk needed to get enuff money to live in Metropolitopolis. But as long as you stayed and kept doing the same things your life would get better and better, your body better and better. Hundreds and then thousands of dollars, hundreds and then thousands of dicks in your mouth. If you ever found someone to hear your prayers you should beg for the strength to answer the phone over and over every night, to let boys vote for what surgeries you should get, to have your nose removed so you just had two apple seed nostrils and a tiny button skijump to show where yer nose used to be. You should pray to figure an angle so that when the manyou married at 40 inevitably dropped you for a baby girl at 45 you could swing it so you had money for a few months while you figured out how to market yer 46-year-old beauty to crap creepy crazy wasted depressed cheap tricks, so you could get your lips filled so rich boys would want themagain, your face like a 60-year-old plastic toy, cute but of archaic design, noseless, almost poreless after your pores all healed shut from bad hygiene, your body a bunch of clumps of plastic gnarled in gristle, your tits like a car accident, soft as a head of cabbage, your silicone hips feelin’ like a bag of ground beef and choppedup rubber boots, your little-girl punk-rock haircut with dry split ends and a grey windows peak, your smile-lines too deep to fill without you turning into a human cat. Sissy kicked her pink suitcase over the side of the bed. On the bottom of it, months ago, she’d written a løve/ hate poem to the metropolis that had kept her within 10 miles of it for her entire life. Each year was the same. Chain-smoking in a nook the sun wouldn’t touch, she began packing and repacking. But she knew she’d tried this before. Packing was not why she hadn’t left. There is nowhere to go, she thought. There is nowhere better. She stopped packing. She lay down again, let go, turned her thinking off, and floated on the billowing furs, waving her arms in the slow back-and-forth pulse of the current. Sissy opened her mouth and willed herself not to choke now, as warm salt filled her throat and lungs, and stung her pink eyes so her square pupils closed to horizontal slits. 13 frankenstein manatees made of fox, rabbit, coon, and wolflamb swam around her head playfully, wrapping it in the soft brush of their fur and then undulating into the rafters to sun themselves. She was looking at nuthin’, her foggy vision obscured by shadows of fish and seaweed, not once coming up from the bottom of the ocean to breathe. Is IGTB challenging the trans narrative? LESBIAN MODERNISTS STEIN and BARNES IMPORTANT CONTEXTS • Rise of America • Industrialization and Urbanization • Technological Innovation • Feminism and Working Women • World Wars people felt that THE WORLD WAS CHANGING RADICALLY AND QUICKLY a massive cultural movement claims to respond to and embody this change… a massive cultural movement claims to respond to and embody this change… modernism Some features of Modernism • • • • • • • • • • • It is international- it happens in many places It is international- it is a movable feast It is international- it is inspired by non-western art It is multi-generic It is multiple It is ideological It is difficult It is oriented towards the future… But it also draws on the distant past It is anti-Victorian It happens, above all, in Paris The 20th Century Lesbian and Gay Narrative? The 20th Century Lesbian and Gay Narrative! • • • • • • • • • A public identity It’s exclusive It’s natural/inherent/stable It places you in a community It’s not about gender It is about sex But it’s also about love Between adults Generally two adults LESBIAN WRITING! Beginning c.1900 with Natalie Clifford Barney’s Quelques Portraits- Sonnets de Femmes and Liane de Pougy’s Idylle Sapphique ? • 1922- Gertrude Stein- Miss Furr and Miss Skeene • 1923- Vita Sackville-West, Challenge • 1928- Radclyffe Hall, The Well of Loneliness • 1928- Virginia Woolf, Orlando • 1928- Djuna Barnes, Ladies Almanack • 1932- Colette, The Pure and the Impure • 1933- Gertrude Stein- The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas See also Bryher, Elsa von Freytag-lorighoven, H.D., Patricia Highsmith… MODERNIST and LESBIAN overlap both SOCIALLY and ARTISTICALLY GERTRUDE STEIN 1874-1947 Born in Pittsburgh Grows up in Oakland Wealthy Family (her father is director of the San Francisco Streetcar lines) Parents die whilst she is in her ‘teens Attends Radcliffe College- Taught by William James THEN GOES TO MEDICAL SCHOOL FOR TWO YEARS! 1903 moves to Paris with her brother, starts buying art SERIOUSLY MATISSE, CEZANNE, RENOIR, PICASSO, GRIS, BRAQUE, GAUGIN, DELACROIX, BONNARD, DAUMIER… 1907 meets ALICE B TOKLAS THEY FALL IN LOVE BECOME A COUPLE HOST A SALON STEIN IS BEST FRIENDS WITH PICASSO WHO PAINTS HER AND SHE ATTEMPTS TO CREATE CUBIST LITERATURE AND SHE ATTEMPTS TO CREATE CUBIST LITERATURE It is a wonderful thing as I was saying and I am now repeating, it is a wonderful thing how much a thing needs to be in one as a desire in them how much courage any one must have in them to be doing anything if they are a first one, if it is something no one is thinking is a serious thing, if it is the buying of a clock one is very much liking and every-body is thinking it an ugly or a foolish one and the one wanting it has for it a serious feeling and no one can think that one is buying it for any- thing but as doing a funny thing. It is a hard thing to be loving something with a serious feeling and every one is thinking that only a servant girl could be loving such a thing, it is a hard thing then to buy that thing. It is a very wonderful thing how much courage it takes to buy and use them and like them bright colored handkerchiefs when every one having good taste is using white ones or pale colored ones when a bright colored one gives to the one buying them so much pleasure that that one suffers always at not having them when that one has not bought one of such of them. It is a very difficult thing to have your being in you so that you will be doing something, anything you are wanting, having something anything you are wanting when you have plenty of money for the buying, in clocks in handkerchiefs, so that you will be thinking, feeling anything that you are needing, feeling, thinking, so that you will be having aspirations that are really of a thing filling you with meaning, so that you will be having really in you in liking a real feeling of satisfaction. It is very hard to know what you are liking, whether you are not really liking something that is a low thing to yourself then, it is a very difficult thing to get the courage to buy the kind of clock or handkerchiefs you are loving when every one thinks it is a silly thing, when every one thinks you are doing it for the joke of the thing. It is hard then to know whether you are really loving that thing. It takes very much courage to do anything connected with your being that is not a serious thing. It takes courage to be doing a serious thing that is connected with one’s being that is certain. WHAT IS CUBIST ABOUT THIS? It is a wonderful thing as I was saying and I am now repeating, it is a wonderful thing how much a thing needs to be in one as a desire in them how much courage any one must have in them to be doing anything if they are a first one, if it is something no one is thinking is a serious thing, if it is the buying of a clock one is very much liking and every-body is thinking it an ugly or a foolish one and the one wanting it has for it a serious feeling and no one can think that one is buying it for any- thing but as doing a funny thing. It is a hard thing to be loving something with a serious feeling and every one is thinking that only a servant girl could be loving such a thing, it is a hard thing then to buy that thing. It is a very wonderful thing how much courage it takes to buy and use them and like them bright colored handkerchiefs when every one having good taste is using white ones or pale colored ones when a bright colored one gives to the one buying them so much pleasure that that one suffers always at not having them when that one has not bought one of such of them. It is a very difficult thing to have your being in you so that you will be doing something, anything you are wanting, having something anything you are wanting when you have plenty of money for the buying, in clocks in handkerchiefs, so that you will be thinking, feeling anything that you are needing, feeling, thinking, so that you will be having aspirations that are really of a thing filling you with meaning, so that you will be having really in you in liking a real feeling of satisfaction. It is very hard to know what you are liking, whether you are not really liking something that is a low thing to yourself then, it is a very difficult thing to get the courage to buy the kind of clock or handkerchiefs you are loving when every one thinks it is a silly thing, when every one thinks you are doing it for the joke of the thing. It is hard then to know whether you are really loving that thing. It takes very much courage to do anything connected with your being that is not a serious thing. It takes courage to be doing a serious thing that is connected with one’s being that is certain. A RED STAMP. If lilies are lily white if they exhaust noise and distance and even dust, if they dusty will dirt a surface that has no extreme grace, if they do this and it is not necessary it is not at all necessary if they do this they need a catalogue. Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose- Now listen! I’m no fool. I know that in daily life we don’t go around saying is a is a is a. Yes, I’m no fool; but I think that in that line the rose is red for the first time in English poetry for a hundred years Miss Furr and Miss Skeene She was gay exactly the same way. She was never tired of being gay that way. She had learned very many little ways to use in being gay. Very many were telling about using other ways in being gay. She was gay enough, she was always gay exactly the same way, she was always learning little things to use in being gay, she was telling about using other ways in being gay, she was telling about learning other ways in being gay, she was learning other ways in being gay, The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas I am a pretty good housekeeper and a pretty good gardener and a pretty good needlewoman and pretty good secretary and a pretty good editor, and a pretty good vet for dogs and I have to do them all at once and I find it difficult to add being a pretty good author. About six weeks ago Gertrude Stein said, it does not look to me as if you were ever going to write that autobiography. You know what I am going to do. I am going to write it for you. I am going to write it as simply as Defoe did the autobiography of Robinson Crusoe. And she has and this is it. Comprehensible Repetition Before I decided to write this book my twenty-five years with Gertrude Stein, I had often said that I would write, The wives of geniuses I have sat with. I have sat with so many. I have sat with wives who were not wives, of geniuses who were real geniuses. I have sat with real wives of geniuses who were not real geniuses. I have sat with wives of geniuses, of near geniuses, of would be geniuses, in short I have sat very often and very long with many wives and wives of many geniuses. BIG HIT STEIN DOES A TOUR OF AMERICA- 1934/5 Stein becomes a BIG PUBLIC WRITER WAS SHE EVASIVE ABOUT THE LOVE STORY SHE WAS TELLING? We had been resting and looking at every body and it was indeed the vie de Bohème just as one had seen it in the opera and they were very wonderful to look at. Just then somebody behind us put a hand on our shoulders and burst out laughing. It was Gertrude Stein. You have seated yourselves admirably, she said. But why, we asked. Because right here in front of you is the whole story. We looked but we saw nothing except two big pictures that looked quite alike but not altogether alike. One is a Braque and one is a Derain, explained Gertrude Stein. They were strange pictures of strangely formed rather wooden blocked figures, one if I remember rightly a sort of man and women, the other three women. Well, she said still laughing. We were puzzled, we had seen so much strangeness we did not know why these two were any stranger. She was quickly lost in an excited and voluble crowd. • 1934/5 kind of a high point for Stein • Surivives World War 2 (as a jew in occupied France)… • With picture collection intact… • Because she collaborates with Vichy regime! • Dies 1947 • Leaves everything to Alice but her family take the pictures! • Alice publishes a cookbook, lives to be 89 and dies in poverty, but ends up in the same grave. DJUNA BARNES 1892-1982 COTERIE LITERATURE • Brought up in a cabin in upstate New York • Her father was a polygamist and child abuser • Raped by neighbour, with her father’s consent, aged 16 • Married off to 52 year old aged 17 • 1912 (when she was 26) she and her mother escape to New York City • She becomes a journalist • Visits prize fights, gets force-fed, meets famous people Moves to Greenwich Village- Centre of Bohemian Life Famous for her Black Cloak 1921- sent to Paris by McCall’s- falls in with set around Natalie Clifford Barney Falls in love with Thelma Wood 1928 Ryder and Ladies Almanack • 1936 Nightwood • 1940 Returns to to America • 1958 The Antiphon • Becomes a recluse • 1972 Ladies Almanack reprinted • 1982 DIES (1982!) • Where Stein depicts the exterior, Barnes depicts the interior • Where Stein is public, Barnes is private • Where Stein is carefully blank, Barnes is VERY detailed • Where Stein is future-oriented Barnes draws on the past ALMANACS • Origins in 13th Century • Take off in the 16th Century • Annual books containing calendars, tables of tides and moons, zodiacs, predictions for weather, other predictions, calendars of saints days, lists of kings, accounts of history… 1704-1841- The Ladies’s Diary or Woman’’s Almanack 1704-1841- The Ladies’s Diary or Woman’’s Almanack WOODCUTS WOODCUTS BARNES PRODUCES ONLY 1050 COPIES and sells them directly herself and through her friends Ladies Almanack doesn’t just COME OUT OF and DESCRIBE a community but CONTRIBUTES TO and HELPS CONSTITUTE it too it is a Roman a Clef • • • • • • • • • Evangeline Musset is Natalie Clifford Barney Patience Scalpel is the poet Mina Loy Doll Furious is Dolly Wilde (Oscar’s niece) Tilly Tweed-in-Blood is the novelist Radclyffe Hall Cynic Sal is the painter Romaine Brooks Nip and Tuck are Janet Flammer and Solita Solano Lady Buck-and-Balk is Una Troubridge Bounding Bess is Esther Murphy etc…. It is deliberately hard to understand partly to keep outsiders out (and for safety) and partly to make insiders feel like insiders Compare James Joyce And in the castle was set a board that was of the birchwood of Finlandy and it was upheld by four dwarfmen of that country but they durst not move for enchantment. And on this board were frightful swords and knives that are made in a great cavern by swinking demons out of white flames that they fix in the horns of buffalos and stags that there abound marvellously. And there were vessels that are wrought by magic of Mahound out of seasand and the air by a warlock with his breath that he blares into them like to bubbles. And full fair cheer and rich was on the board that no wight could devise a fuller ne richer. And there was a vat of silver that was moved by craft to open in the which lay strange fishes withouten heads though misbelieving men nie that this be possible thing without they see it natheless they are so. And these fishes lie in an oily water brought there from Portugal land because of the fatness that therein is like to the juices of the olive press. And also it was marvel to see in that castle how by magic they make a compost out of fecund wheat kidneys out of Chaldee that by aid of certain angry spirits that they do into it swells up wondrously like to a vast mountain. And they teach the serpents there to entwine themselves up on long sticks out of the ground and of the scales of these serpents they brew out a brewage like to mead. “In my day,” said Dame Musset, and at once the look of the Pope, which she carried about with her as a Habit, waned a little, and there was seen to shine forth the Cunning of a Monk in Holy Orders, in some Country too old for Tradition, “in my day I was a Pioneer and a Menace, it was not then as it is now, chic and pointless to a degree, but as daring as a Crusade, for where now it leaves a woman talkative, so that we have not a Secret among us, then it left her in Tears and Trepidation. Then one had to lure them to the Breast, and now,” she said, “You have to smack them, back and front to ween them at all! What joy has the missionary,” she added, her Eyes narrowing and her long Ears moving with Disappointment, “when all the Heathen greet her with Glory Halleluja! before she opens her Mouth, and with an Amen! before she shuts it! I would,” she said, “that there were one Woman somewhere that one could take to task for Lethargy. Ah!” she sighed, “there were many such when I was a Girl, and in particular I recall one dear old Countess who was not to be convinced until I, fervid with Truth, had finally so floored her in every capacious Room of that dear ancestral Home, that I knew to a Button, how every Ticking was made! And what a lack of Art there is in the Upholstery Trade, for that they do not finish off the under Parts of Sofas and Chairs with anything like Elegance showered upon that Portion which comes to the Eye! if you have to read into Gertrude Stein, you have to read out of Djuna Barnes A DIGRESSION ON GERTRUDE STEIN’S POODLES Photograph of Gertrude Stein and Alice Toklas in the apartment at 27 rue de Fleurus, Paris, 1922: by Man Ray Stein and Toklas with their poodles (the poodles were named ‘Basket I’ and Basket II) Portrait of Basket I, by Man Ray • Stein and Toklas’s first poodle was a Standard white, bought at a dog show in Paris. • He was named ‘Basket’ by Toklas who felt he was so fashionable that he should carry a basket of flowers in his mouth (a feat he never accomplished). • A firm favorite of Stein’s, she insisted that Basket be bathed in sulfur water each day. • Toklas noted: “Basket, a large, unwieldy white poodle, still will get up on Gertrude’s lap and stay there. She says that listening to the rhythm of his water drinking made her recognize the difference between sentences and paragraphs, that paragraphs are emotional and sentences are not.” • Basket II was a pedigree and his papers came in handy during World War II when Nazis forbade the feeding of all pets except pedigrees. • She also had chiuauas th 19 Century Poetry of Desire Walt Whitman and Gerard Manley Hopkins Walt Whitman 1819-1892 • • • • • Born in Long Island Working-class, quaker-affiliated family Grows up in Brooklyn Finishes school at 11 Works as printer, schoolteacher and journalist • Educates himself from circulating libraries • 1846-8 editor of Brooklyn Daily Eagle • 1850 Decides to be a poet! 1855 FIRST EDITION OF LEAVES OF GRASS (this is a pun) Admired by EMERSON Writes Own Reviews AN American bard at last! One of the roughs, large, proud, affectionate, eating, drinking, and breeding, his costume manly and free, his face sunburnt and bearded, his posture strong and erect, his voice bringing hope and prophecy to the generous races of young and old. We shall cease shamming and be what we really are. We shall start an athletic and defiant literature. We realize now how it is, and what was most lacking. The interior American republic shall also be declared free and independent No sniveller, or tea-drinking poet, no puny clawback or prude, is Walt Whitman. He will bring poems fit to fill the days and nights—fit for men and women with the attributes of throbbing blood and flesh. The body, he teaches, is beautiful. Sex is also beautiful. Are you to be put down, he seems to ask, to that shallow level of literature and conversation that stops a man’s recognizing the delicious pleasure of his sex, or a woman hers? Nature he proclaims inherently pure. Other reviews more cautious… They are certainly original in their external form, have been shaped on no pre-existent model out of the author’s own brain. Indeed, his independence often becomes coarse and defiant. His language is too frequently reckless and indecent though this appears to arise from a naive unconsciousness rather than from an impure mind. His words might have passed between Adam and Eve in Paradise, before the want of fig-leaves brought no shame; but they are quite out of place amid the decorum of modern society, and will justly prevent his volume from free circulation in scrupulous circles. With these glaring faults, the Leaves of Grass are not destitute of peculiar poetic merits, which will awaken an interest in the lovers of literary curiosities. Goes to Pfaff’s Beer Cellar A BOHEMIAN HANG-OUT becomes part of the “Fred Gray Association” (probably a group of men who were attracted to men) has a brief relationship with Fred Vaughan and writes LIVE OAK WITH MOSS WHEN I heard at the close of the day more— how my name had been received with And the beautiful day passed well, plaudits in the capitol, still it was not a And the next came with equal joy—And happy night for me that followed; with the next, at evening, came my And else, when I caroused, or when my friend; plans were accomplished, still I was And that night, while all was still, I not happy; heard the waters roll slowly continually But the day when I rose at dawn from up the shores, the bed of perfect health, refreshed, I heard the hissing rustle of the liquid singing, inhaling the ripe breath of and sands, as directed to me, autumn, whispering, to congratulate me, When I saw the full moon in the west For the one I love most lay sleeping by grow pale and disappear in the me under the same cover in the cool morning light, night, When I wandered alone over the In the stillness, in the autumn beach, and, undressing, bathed, moonbeams, his face was inclined laughing with the cool waters, and saw toward me, the sun rise, And his arm lay lightly around my And when I thought how my dear breast—And that night I was happy. friend, my lover, was on his way coming, O then I was happy; O then each breath tasted sweeter— and all that day my food nourished me then expanded and re-ordered it into CALAMUS which is included in the 1860 “Leaves of Grass” Camouflage? Already you see I have escaped from you. For it is not for what I have put into it that I have written this book, Nor is it by reading it you will acquire it, Nor do those know me best who admire me and vauntingly praise me, Nor will the candidates for my love (unless at most a very few, prove victorious, Nor will my poems do good only, they will do just as much evil, perhaps more, For all is useless without that which you may guess at many times and not hit, that which I hinted at. But also an attempt to BROADEN and even POLITICIZE I will establish in the Mannahatta and in every city of these States inland and seaboard, And in the fields and woods, and above every keel little or large that dents the water, Without edifices or rules or trustees or any argument, The institution of the dear love of comrades. Goes (almost) under the radar In our allusions to this book, we have found it impossible to convey any, even the most faint idea of its style and contents, and of our disgust and detestation of them, without employing language that cannot be pleasing to ears polite; but it does seem that some one should, under circumstances like these, undertake a most disagreeable, yet stern duty. The records of crime show that many monsters have gone on in impunity, because the exposure of their vileness was attended with too great indelicacy. “Peccatum illud horribile, inter Christianos non nominandum.” Here the frailest leaves of me and yet my strongest lasting, Here I shade and hide my thoughts, I myself do not expose them, And yet they expose me more than all my other poems. • • • • CIVIL WAR happens Whitman moves to Washington Volunteers as a ‘Nurse’ Publishes “Drum Taps’ – poems about the Civil War • Makes friends with William Douglas O’Connor • Who gets him a job at the Bureau of Indian Affairs… THEN He gets FIRED When the secretary of the interior discovers he writes ‘obscene’ poems O’Connor Defends Whitman writes “THE GOOD GRAY POET” (1866) and gets him a job at the Attorney General’s Office 1865- Meets Peter Doyle 1867, another Leaves of Grass 1868 Whitman’s poems published in ENGLAND and find a very interested audience • • • • • 1872 another Leaves of Grass 1873 has a stroke Moves to Camden, New Jersey! 1881 another Leaves of Grass Banned in Massachusetts but sells 6000 copies • 1891 another Leaves of Grass • 1892 DIES! Between 1868 and 1892 becomes a VERY important figure in England for the people beginning to identify themselves as INVERTS or URANIANS who represent the beginnings of what we would now call the “gay rights movement” John Addington Symonds (1840- 1893) • Writes “A Problem in Greek Ethics” • Earliest known use of “homosexual” in print? • Writes first “homosexual autobiography” • And corresponds with Whitman for about 20 years, beginning 1871 [Calamus] impressed me in every way most profoundly—unalterably; but especially did I then learn confidently to believe that the Comradeship which I conceived as on a par with the sexual feeling for depth and strength and purity and capability of all good, was real—not a delusion of distorted passions, a dream of the Past, a scholar’s fancy— but a strong and vital bond of man to man. Yet even then how hard I found it—brought up in English feudalism, educated at an aristocratic public school (Harrow) and an over refined University (Oxford)—to winnow from my own emotion and from my conception of the ideal friend all husks of affectations and aberrations and to be a simple human being! You cannot tell quite how hard this was, and how you helped me. I have pored for continuous hours over the pages of Calamus (as I used to pore over the pages of Plato), longing to hear you speak, burning for a revelation of your more developed meaning, panting to ask—is this what you would indicate?—are then the free men of your land really so pure and loving and noble and generous and sincere? Most of all did I desire to hear from your own lips—or from your pen—some story of athletic friendship from which to learn the truth. Yet I dared not to address you or dreamed that the thought of a student could abide the inevitable shafts of your searching intuition. Eventually (1890, after 18 years) he finally comes out and asks This reference to Havelock Ellis helps me to explain what it is I want to ask you. In your conception of Comradeship, do you contemplate the possible intrusion of those semi-sexual emotions and actions which no doubt do occur between men? I do not ask, whether you approve of them, or regard them as a necessary part of the relation? But I should much like to know whether you are prepared to leave them to the inclinations and the conscience of the individuals concerned? And Whitman… And Whitman… DENIES EVERYTHING! About the questions on “Calamus” pieces &c., they quite daze me. L of G is only to be rightly construed by and within its own atmosphere and essential character – all its pages and pieces so coming strictly under. That the Calamus part has even allowed the possibility of such construction as mentioned is terrible. I am fain to hope the pages themselves are not to be even mentioned for such gratuitous and quite at the time undream’d and unreck’d possibility of morbid inferences — wh’re disavow’d by me & seem damnable. Tho always unmarried I have had six children- two are dead- one living southern grandchild, fine boy, who writes me occasionally. this is NOT TRUE but it is a crushing disappointment to Symonds Edward Carpenter (1844- 1929) (later author of ‘The Intermediate Sex’) Has better luck! He visits Whitman, who insists he sleeps mainly with women but who also goes ahead and sleeps with Carpenter A “gentle laying on of hands leading not to a spilling of seed but to a far more intense orgasm of the whole nervous system” This connection to the URANIANS is also a connection to HOPKINS Gerard Manley Hopkins 1844-1889 Educated at Highgate School (me too!) Goes to Oxford (me too! I am life-stalking Hopkins!) • Taught by Walter Pater • Makes Friends with Robert Bridges • Falls in love with “Christian Uranian” Digby Mackworth Dolben, and writes him poems • Gets involved with the Anglo-Catholic Puseyites • Meets Cardinal Newman • Converts to Catholicism • Becomes estranged from his family 1868 Begins studying to BECOME A JESUIT PRIEST and GIVES UP POETRY Shape nothing, lips; be lovely-dumb: It is the shut, the curfew sent From there where all surrenders come Which only makes you eloquent. 1872 reads DUNS SCOTUS and decides poetry is OK AFTER ALL 1876- starts writing ‘The Wreck of the Deutschland” BUT- it’s rejected by a Jesuit magazine because they think it is (metrically) TOO LIKE WHITMAN (who Hopkins had been reading) HOPKINS NEVER PUBLISHES AGAIN! From now on all his love From now on all his love IS FOR JESUS Brute beauty and valour and act, oh, air, pride, plume, here Buckle! AND the fire that breaks from thee then, a billion Times told lovelier, more dangerous, O my chevalier! 1877 ORDAINED 1882 Bridges compares a poem of his to Whitman Dearest Bridges, – I have read of Whitman’s (1) ‘Pete’ in the library at Bedford Square (and perhaps something else; if so I forget), which you pointed out; (2) two pieces in the Athenaeum or Academy, one on the Man-of-War Bird, the other beginning ‘Spirit that formed this scene’; (3) short extracts in a review by Saintsbury in the Academy: this is all I remember. I cannot have read more than a half a dozen pieces at most. . . . The question then is only about the fact. But first I may as well say what I should not otherwise have said, that I always knew in my heart Walt Whitman’s mind to be more like my own than any other man’s living. As he is a very great scoundrel this is not a pleasant confession. And this also makes me the more desirous to read him and the more determined that I will not. Then concedes Extremes meet, and (I must for truth’s sake say what sounds pride) this savagery of his art, this rhythm in its last ruggedness and decomposition into common prose, comes near the last elaboration of mine. For that piece of mine is very highly wrought. The long lines are not rhythm run to seed: everything is weighed and timed in them. Wait till they have taken hold of your ear and you will find it so. 1884- sent to Ireland as professor of Greek HATES IT struggles with sexual attraction to men To what serves mortal beauty | dangerous; does set dancing blood the O-seal-that-so | feature, flung prouder form Than Purcell tune lets tread to? | See: it does this: keeps warm Men’s wits to the things that are; | what good means—where a glance Master more may than gaze, | gaze out of countenance. Those lovely lads once, wet-fresh | windfalls of war’s storm, How then should Gregory, a father, | have gleanèd else from swarmed Rome? But God to a nation | dealt that day’s dear chance. To man, that needs would worship | block or barren stone, Our law says: Love what are | love’s worthiest, were all known; World’s loveliest—men’s selves. Self | flashes off frame and face. What do then? how meet beauty? | Merely meet it; own, Home at heart, heaven’s sweet gift; | then leave, let that alone. Yea, wish that though, wish all, | God’s better beauty, grace. writes “Terrible Sonnets” I wake and feel the fell of dark, not day. What hours, O what black hours we have spent This night! what sights you, heart, saw; ways you went! And more must, in yet longer light’s delay. With witness I speak this. But where I say Hours I mean years, mean life. And my lament Is cries countless, cries like dead letters sent To dearest him that lives alas! away. I am gall, I am heartburn. God’s most deep decree Bitter would have me taste: my taste was me; Bones built in me, flesh filled, blood brimmed the curse. Selfyeast of spirit a dull dough sours. I see The lost are like this, and their scourge to be As I am mine, their sweating selves; but worse DIES 1889 Poems published (by Bridges) only in 1918! But they have a HUGE belated impact BOTH THESE POETS EXIST ON THE THRESHOLD OF “GAY” BUT NEITHER FALLS WITHIN THAT DESCRIPTION WHITMAN IS VERY PUBLIC (and struggles to find a way to be publicly a lover of other men) HOPKINS IS VERY PRIVATE (and struggles to find a way to be privately a lover of other men) you might say WHITMAN TELLS WHAT IT IS LIKE WHEN YOU CAN’T SPEAK THIS THING TO OTHERS HOPKINS WHAT IT IS LIKE WHEN YOU CAN’T SPEAK IT TO YOURSELF

Auto Industry

Auto Industry




United States Auto Industry Back on Top of CEO Pay

Answer the following questions:

  1. Do you think CEOs and other executives are worth the compensation packages they receive? Why or why not?
  2. Do you agree with Peter Drucker that corporate executives should receive compensation packages no larger than a certain percentage of the pay of hourly workers? Explain.
  3. Will the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act giving shareholders the right to vote on executive pay influence the size of these packages in the future?

The following requirements must be met:

  • Write between 1,000 – 1,500 words using Microsoft Word in APA 6th edition style.
  • Use an appropriate number of references to support your position, and defend your arguments. The following are examples of primary and secondary sources that may be used, and non-credible and opinion based sources that may not be used.
    1. Primary sources such as government websites (United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Census BureauThe World Bank), peer-reviewed and scholarly journals in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library) and Google Scholar.
    2. Secondary and credible sources such as CNN MoneyThe Wall Street Journal, trade journals, and publications in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library).
    3. Non-credible and opinion based sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. should not be used.
  • Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased statements, information, etc.) in the paper and list each source on a reference page using APA style. An overview of APA 6th edition in-text citations, formatting, reference list, and style is provided here.

Download an APA sample paper from the Purdue OWL here.