Research Paper Help
The purpose of this milestone is to begin the process of becoming an expert on your topic. As a group, decide on a medical condition that is caused by your assigned human activity.
1. Begin to brainstorm about a taskforce name for your group
a. Extinction of bees caused by pesticides – The Sting without the Buzz / A Different Kind of Buzz
b. Loss of sustainability though Corporate Ownership– Farmageddon / Make Faming Great Again
c. Plastic Pollution and hormone Disruption: Save the Jugs / Plus Sized Plastic / Bottles Swimmers Research Paper Help
2. List out 6 subtopics that will help create a comprehensive review of the literature on your topic. Find at least 15 articles that are related to your topic and specific role. And three references for each subtopic. References can be reused for more than one subtopic. Create a literature review outline. For each reference list a minimum of 3 relevant, specific and detailed pieces of information rewritten in your own words, that will be helpful as you progress through the course (relevant statistics, current treatment, legislation, history).
3. Articles published by non-profit, health, agricultural and environmental organizations or coalitions that are already involved in your topic (for or against). It might not be a bad idea to see what the opposition’s position is. These most likely will not be sources for a literature review but often reference studies that are peer reviewed or governmental agency reports which you will be able to use.
4. Published articles by investigative journals like BBC, PBS, NPR, Huffington Post, the Guardian, New York Times or Washington Post can also help you to get your feet wet. Often these sources reference studies that are peer reviewed or governmental agency reports
5. Lobbying groups that have influenced policy makers to create legislation that has led to the threat of a health care crisis.
6. Information on current legislation and laws related to your topic Research Paper Help
7. Absolutely no dot coms
Keep your role in mind during the investigation
· Medical care provider – you will be identifying the toxin or nutrient imbalance and will also be an expert the disease and current treatment
· Epidemiologist/ Sociologist – you will be making the link between the human activity and the health related issue. You will be an expert in the social or ecological environment depending on your topic. Research Paper Help
· Scientist- you will be creating a revolutionary treatment and will be an expert in the pathophysiology of the disease as well as research and development.
· Public Health Educator- you will be providing the history of the industry / institution involved in causing the health related issue, be an expert in legislation and provide alternative education material to prevent the public health or social issue.
Literature review Outline
Kathryn Ayres MA, RD LD/N
Topic: Dairy’s Role in Breast Cancer
Role: Public Health Educator Research Paper Help
1. The history of drinking milk
2. The Farm Bill
3. Lobbying and Market Control
A. (2013, October 31). Agriculture and Health Policies in Conflict: How Subsidies Tax our Health: Government Support for Unhealthful Foods. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://www.pcrm.org/health/reports/agriculture-and-health-policies-unhealthful-foodsAgriculture and
a. Commodity crops like corn, soy, barley, oats, sorghum, cotton, wheat, rice are receive the majority of federal farming subsidies
b. Dairy has its own federal subsidy programs Research Paper Help
c. USDA refers to fresh veggies and fruit as specialty crops and does not receive subsidies.
d. If you grow commodity crops you cannot grow specialty crops
4. Environmental impact of Dairy
5. Farmers as Victims of Big Ag
6. Milk’s False claims to health Research Paper Help
(2016, January 26). Health Concerns about Dairy Products. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/health-concerns-about-dairy-products
a. Clinical research shows dairy has no benefit for bones
b. High levels of IGF-1 has been linked with milk consumption and cancer
c. A large portion of people are lactose intolerant – Asians (95%), Native Americans (75%), and African Americans (70%).
d. Is a source of contamination like hormones, plastics and viruses Research Paper Help
7. Bovine Leukemia
Bovine leukemia virus. (January 7, 2017). Wikipedia. Retrieved January 15, 2017, From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_leukemia_virus
a. Retrovirus that interrogates its self into the genome of the host in the lymph
b. Contains an oncogene HTLV 1 &2 that codes for a protein TAX
c. TAX interferes with the cell cycle and genetic integrity by blocking cellular pathways
Options in controlling BLV. (n.d.). Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://blv.msu.edu/
d. Unsuccessful at creating a vaccine at this time Research Paper Help
e. Options for controlling BLV: more sanitary conditions within the herds = not using the same needle, use only BLV negative cattle for breading, change gloves during exams, clean equipment with blood on it (dehorning, tattooing)
f. Bovine leukemia has been eradicated from 12 European countries yet the US has done little to act
Sarah Yang, Media relations | September 15, 2015September 21, 2015, & Yang, S. (2015, September 21). Virus in cattle linked to human breast cancer. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://news.berkeley.edu/2015/09/15/bovine-leukemia-virus-breast-cancer
g. Researchers analyzed tissue from 239 women for the presence of BLV and compared the sample from women with and without breast cancer. 59% of women with breast cancer samples had evidence of exposure
h. 29% of the tissue samples from women without breast cancer had been exposed to the virus
i. Department of Agriculture found 100% of bulk milk tanks contained the virus. Smaller farms 83% of the milk was contaminated
j. This odds ratio is higher than other publicized risk factor (obesity, drinking, menopause) Research Paper Help
k. Treatment could be shifted to prevention instead of reactionary
The purpose of the materials and methods section is to explain your research in such detail that it could be repeated by another group of scientists and their results would be identical to yours. These sections in all scholarly papers are written in paragraph form and do not include any bullet point lists. It is also written in the past tense and formally. There will be less in text citations in this section in comparison to the lit review and the conclusion but they are NOT optional. If you are using someone else’s idea or information that is not common knowledge you MUST cite the source. These sections do not include background information. If you find yourself writing about anything other than materials and methods used it need to go in either you lit review or conclusion. It is purely the recipe of the research paper.
First you must identify
· Independent variable (there will only be one) Research Paper Help
· Dependent variables (you will need 2 at least)
· Variables you will control for
· Control Group
· Experimental group
Includes a comprehensive list of all the materials needed for the experiment including
· The number of subjects and the inclusion criteria
· Units of measurement
Includes a step by step details account of the techniques used to collect data written in the past tense
Justifies the use of each technique used to collect valid data
Examples of how to start this section
· To investigate the correlation between Research Paper Help
· To confirm the presence of
· To identify the cause of
Public Health Educators
The purpose of the projected outcomes section is to explain the three policy changes and two educational interventions you wish to make and to justify them. These sections in all scholarly papers are written in paragraph form and do not include any bullet point lists. It is also written in the future tense and formally. There will be less in text citations in this section in comparison to the lit review and the conclusion but they are NOT optional. If you are using someone else’s idea or information that is not common knowledge you MUST cite the source. Minimum of 6 sources is required. You can use the sources from your literature review and new references as well. These sections do not typically include background information with some room for exceptions. See the outline for guidance on the layout. Research Paper Help
For this assignment 2 visual aids that illustrate your data collected are required
The visuals must be relevant to your research and must be created through your hypothetical study (you can’t use someone else’s data)
Chart, tables or graphs are acceptable and must include Research Paper Help
· A title
· Labeled x and y axis
· Correct units of measurement
· Logical choice of measurement and units
After each visual a description of each follows. The description details the chart so that someone could recreate the chart without seeing it.
Public Health Projected Outcomes
This will include a cost analysis after your proposed changes are enacted as well as other potential outcomes (decreased rates of disease, methane production etc.). You must explain how you reached your results in such detail someone could repeat your calculations Research Paper Help .